Introducing The Perfect Rulebook

Oh ye.

TPB is a printed book, published by Shueisha in Japanese only. It contains some basic and advanced rules for the Yu-Gi-Oh! card game that you may have learned about, but it also casually includes some odd rules that you won’t find printed anywhere else. At the moment, some of the advanced rules written there are existing knowledge that is not available in any official resource that isn’t in Japanese. There are currently two versions of the book: one from 2014, and one from 2015. The 2015 one is very similar to the previous version, with only more updated rules.

I considered making a scanlation of the book, but editing the images takes forever, and it may lead to drama since it has some pictures owned by the various YGO license holders…so yeah, text only it is. You may have noticed it is the year 2016 now and not 2014 or 2015. There’s been quite a few delays. Fortunately, unlike the 2014 Rulebook, none of the rules described in the 2015 Rulebook have been revised during the year as far as I am aware. If they make a new Rulebook for 2016, I’ll just try to update it here.

The book is divided in 4 chapters:
-Chapter 1: Some recently updated rules (pages 7-18)
-Chapter 2: Basic rules (pages 19-34)
-Chapter 3: Master Rules 3, the core of the book (pages 35-178)
-Chapter 4: Yu-Gi-Oh! OCG Certification test + Perfect Rulebook Index, as the name says, it is an index, but it’s also a quick glossary. I’m not translating this chapter because it has no new information.

Important note: Since this is a book written for Japanese Yu-Gi-Oh cards, a significant part of it emphasizes reading Japanese card texts, and this will be poorly localized as a result. Expect comments and TL notes in [brackets].

Pages 1-6:

Covers, intro, etc. Nothing important.

Page 7:

Chapter 1: Updated Rules
Introducing updated and new rules from May 2014 to May 2015
Xyz/Pendulum Monsters: Page 8
Effects changed to apply until the end of the turn: Page 11
Rules for cards with recently modified texts: Page 15
Rules for effects that say “cannot be used”: Page 18

Page 8:

Updated Rules

This section introduces rules for the new category of Xyz/Pendulum Monsters and rules that start applying since May 2015. Let’s deal with the next generation of Duels.

Updated rule (1): Xyz/Pendulum Monsters

The first card that possesses the characteristics of Xyz and Pendulum Monsters. It can be Summoned in different ways whether it is face-up or face-down in the Extra Deck. In addition, it has special effects when it is destroyed as a monster on the field or when it is placed in a Pendulum Zone.
[Pictured: Odd-Eyes Rebellion Dragon]

Basic rules for the card

•A monster that reads “Xyz/Pendulum” to the right side of its Type is treated as both an Xyz Monster and a Pendulum Monster.
•An Xyz/Pendulum Monster has no Level and possesses a Rank.
•An Xyz/Pendulum Monster is not placed in the Main Deck while building the Deck, and it is placed face-down in the Extra Deck instead.
•If an Xyz/Pendulum Monster on the field, Graveyard, or that is banished would be returned to the hand or Deck, that monster is returned to the Extra Deck face-down instead.
•If an Xyz/Pendulum Monster on the field (whether it is in a Pendulum Zone, Monster Zone, or Spell & Trap Zone) would be sent to the Graveyard, it is added face-up to the Extra Deck instead, providing there are no particular effects being applied.
•An Xyz/Pendulum Monster placed in a Pendulum Zone is treated as a Spell Card.

[Notes in arrows: Detailed rules for Xyz Monsters are in page 58, detailed rules for Pendulum Monsters are in page 59]

Page 9:

Summoning an Xyz/Pendulum Monster

•A face-down Xyz/Pendulum Monster in the Extra Deck can be Xyz Summoned. Also, it cannot be Pendulum Summoned.
•A face-up Xyz/Pendulum Monster in the Extra Deck cannot be Xyz Summoned. If the Level written in the card can be Pendulum Summoned, it can be Pendulum Summoned from the Extra Deck.
•If an Xyz/Pendulum Monster is Pendulum Summoned, it is treated as Special Summoning a monster of that monster’s Rank.
•If a Pendulum Summoned Xyz/Pendulum Monster is destroyed and it is added to the Extra Deck face-up, it can be Pendulum Summoned once again.
•If an Xyz/Pendulum Monster has its Xyz or Pendulum Summon negated, that card is destroyed and sent to the Graveyard.
•If an Xyz/Pendulum Monster that was not properly Special Summoned is later added to the Extra Deck face-up, it cannot be Special Summoned.
Example: If “Odd-Eyes Rebellion Dragon” is Special Summoned by the effect of “Xyz Shift” that says “Special Summon from your Extra Deck, 1 monster with the same Type, Attribute, and Rank as that Tributed monster had on the field, but with a different name, and if you do, attach this card to it as an Xyz Material.“, and it is later added to the Extra Deck, it cannot be Pendulum Summoned.

Summoning Method

Extra Deck status

Face-downFace-up after proper SummonFace-up after improper Summon
Xyz SummonXX
Pendulum SummonXX
Special Summon by a card effect treated as Xyz SummonXX
Special Summon by a card effectX
Effects that Special Summon Pendulum Monsters that are face-up in the Extra DeckXX

The table above summarizes each summoning method that you can use to Special Summon an Xyz/Pendulum Monster in each situation. A proper Special Summon means the monster is Xyz Summoned or it is Special Summoned by effects like a “Rank-Up-Magic” that are treated as an Xyz Summon.

[I.e. a ✓ symbol means you can use the Summoning method in that situation, while a X symbol means you cannot.]

Page 10:

Other Rules

An effect like “D/D Proud Chevalier” that says “You can add 1 face-up DARK Pendulum Monster from your Extra Deck to your hand.” cannot be applied on a face-up Xyz/Pendulum Monster in the Extra Deck to return it to the hand or Deck.
Example: A face-up “Odd-Eyes Rebellion Dragon” in the Extra Deck cannot be chosen for the effect of “Pot of Riches” that says “Shuffle 3 Pendulum Monsters into the Deck, from your Graveyard and/or face-up in your Extra Deck, then draw 2 cards.“.

[Pictured: Pot of Riches, D/D Proud Chevalier]

Rules for “Odd-Eyes Rebellion Dragon”

•If “Odd-Eyes Rebellion Dragon” is destroyed in a Monster Zone, its (2) Monster Effect can be activated after it is added to the Extra Deck face-up. If it is activated, all cards in your Pendulum Zones are destroyed and “Odd-Eyes Rebellion Dragon” itself is placed in your Pendulum Zone. Also, even if it is destroyed and banished by some effect like “Bottomless Trap Hole”, the (2) Monster Effect can be activated after it is banished. If it is activated, all cards in your Pendulum Zones are destroyed and “Odd-Eyes Rebellion Dragon” itself is placed in your Pendulum Zone.
•After activating the (2) effect, if cards in your Pendulum Zones cannot be destroyed, it is not placed in your Pendulum Zone.
•If this card in your Pendulum Zone or Spell & Trap Zone is destroyed and added to the Extra Deck face-up, the (2) effect cannot be activated.

Page 11

Updated Rule (2): Effects changed to apply until the end of the turn

A batch of effects that apply until the End Phase like effects that modify ATK/DEF have been changed to continue to apply until the end of the turn in order to simplify how the End Phase proceeds.

Differences between effects that last until the End Phase and until the end of the turn

•Effects that apply until the End Phase stop applying when the player who activated that effect stops them from applying during the End Phase.
•Effects that apply until the end of the turn are applied until all effects are activated and resolved during the End Phase and after adjusting the hand size.

[Note in arrow: Detailed rules for the End Phase are in page 173]

Effect Veiler: negate that opponent’s face-up monster’s effects until the End Phase => negate that opponent’s face-up monster’s effects until the end of this turn.
Rush Recklessly: it gains 700 ATK until the End Phase => it gains 700 ATK until the end of this turn.

[Pictured: Effect Veiler, Rush Recklessly]

[The rest of page 11, page 12, page 13, and part of page 14 cover extensive lists of cards that have been modified to apply their effects until the End Phase. The lists are very long, and whether an effect applies until the end of the turn or not depends on the most recent text of the card in the region in which you play, so I’m not doing them :^) The second part of Page 14 is not a list, but it deals with being careful about how you interpret the changes of some of the cards, like those that have multiple effects.]

Page 15

Rules for cards with recently modified texts

This section introduces rules for cards that had their effects changed to new texts from April 2014 until May 2015. All old cards are to be ruled with their new rules.

[At the time this is written, all cards except “Chaos Emperor Dragon – Envoy of the End” have received the same updates in the TCG as well]
Twin-Headed Behemoth
Since 4/19/2015: During the End Phase, if this card is in the Graveyard because it was destroyed on the field and sent there this turn: You can Special Summon this card, but its ATK and DEF become 1000. You can only use this effect of “Twin-Headed Behemoth” once per Duel.

The effect that activates during the End Phase has been changed from being mandatorily activated to an optionally activated effect.
[Pictured: Twin-Headed Behemoth]
•Even if the activation of the (1) effect is negated, the effect of “Twin-Headed Behemoth” cannot be activated again during that Duel.
•The (1) effect is a Trigger Effect that activates in the Graveyard during the End Phase.
•If a “Twin-Headed Behemoth” Special Summoned by its own effect is changed to face-down Defense Position and later flipped face-up again by some effect like “Book of Moon”, its stats return to the original values.

Sinister Serpent
Since 1/1/2015: During your Standby Phase, if this card is in your Graveyard: You can add it to your hand, also banish 1 “Sinister Serpent” from your Graveyard during your opponent’s next End Phase. You can only use this effect of “Sinister Serpent” once per turn.

The effects of cards with the same name can only be used once per turn, and an additional effect that banishes has been included.
[Pictured: Sinister Serpent]
•The (1) effect is a Trigger Effect that activates in the Graveyard during the Standby Phase.
•If the (1) effect is activated, even if that “Sinister Serpent” is destroyed, banished, returned to the Deck, etc., the part of the effect that says “also banish 1 “Sinister Serpent” from your Graveyard during your opponent’s next End Phase.” must be applied.
•Even if “Necrovalley” is active, the (1) effect can be activated. Providing “Necrovalley” stays active afterwards, the part of the effect that banishes a card during the opponent’s End Phase is not applied.

Page 16

Crush Card Virus
Since 1/1/2015: Tribute 1 DARK monster with 1000 or less ATK; your opponent takes no damage until the end of the next turn after this card resolves, also, you look at your opponent’s hand and all monsters they control, and if you do, destroy the monsters among them with 1500 or more ATK, then your opponent can destroy up to 3 monsters with 1500 or more ATK in their Deck.

The effect that destroys cards that are drawn becomes an effect that destroys cards in the Deck, and the opponent does not take any damage for 2 turns.
[Pictured: Crush Card Virus]
•If not even 1 monster on the opponent’s field or hand were destroyed, the part of the effect that destroys monsters in the Deck cannot be performed.
•The part of the effect that destroys monsters on the field and hand, and the part of the effect that destroys monsters in the Deck are not considered to happen simultaneously.

Ring of Destruction
Since 1/1/2015: During your opponent’s turn: Target 1 face-up monster your opponent controls whose ATK is less than or equal to their LP; destroy that face-up monster, and if you do, take damage equal to its original ATK, then inflict damage to your opponent equal to the damage you took. You can only activate 1 “Ring of Destruction” per turn.

Further activation requirements are added, and the damage is taken in a yourself => the opponent order.
[Pictured: Ring of Destruction]
•This card can be activated during the opponent’s turn by targeting an opponent’s monster with an ATK equal or lower to the opponent’s LP. It cannot be activated during the Damage Step.
•If an effect like “Rainbow Life” is being applied, so that you take no damage, the part of the effect that later inflicts damage to the opponent is not performed.

Exchange of the Spirit
Since 1/1/2015: If both players have 15 or more cards in their Graveyards: Pay 1000 LP; each player swaps the cards in their Graveyard with the cards in their Deck, then shuffles their Deck. You can only activate 1 “Exchange of the Spirit” per Duel.

It is only possible to activate once per Duel, and it is necessary for the opponent to have cards in their Graveyard as well.
[Pictured: Exchange of the Spirit]
•This card can be activated when both players have 15 or more cards in their Graveyards by paying 1000 LP as a cost. It cannot be activated during the Damage Step.
•Monsters like Fusion, Synchro or Xyz Monsters that would ultimately be returned to the Extra Deck as a result are also counted towards the number of cards in the Graveyard.

Page 17

Temple of the Kings:
Since 1/1/2015: You can activate 1 Trap Card the turn it was Set. You can send 1 “Mystical Beast of Serket” in your Monster Zone and this card you control to the Graveyard; Special Summon 1 monster from your hand or Deck, or 1 Fusion Monster from your Extra Deck. You can only use each effect of “Temple of the Kings” once per turn.

It is only possible to use each effect once per turn.
[Pictured: Temple of the Kings]
•Even if a card is set by a card effect like “Scrap-Iron Scarecrow”, the (1) effect can only be used once per turn.
•Even if the activation or effect of the Trap Card Set that turn is negated, Trap Cards Set during that turn cannot be activated.

Chaos Emperor Dragon – Envoy of the End
Since 1/1/2015: Cannot be Normal Summoned/Set. Must be Special Summoned (from your hand) by banishing 1 LIGHT and 1 DARK monster from your Graveyard, and cannot be Special Summoned by other ways. You can pay 1000 Life Points; send all cards in both players’ hands and on the field to the Graveyard, then inflict 300 damage to your opponent for each of their cards sent to the Graveyard by this effect. You cannot activate other effects during the turn you activate this effect.

Further activation requirements are added, and the damage value the opponent takes has also been altered.
[Pictured: Chaos Emperor Dragon – Envoy of the End. Text is tentative, as the TCG has not revised this text to this date]
•This is a Special Summon monster that can only be Special Summoned by the method described in its text.
•If you have already activated the effects of other cards this turn, the (1) effect of a “Chaos Emperor Dragon – Envoy of the End” that is Special Summoned afterwards cannot be activated.

Dark Magician of Chaos
Since 1/4/2015: During the End Phase, if this card was Normal or Special Summoned this turn: You can target 1 Spell Card in your Graveyard; add it to your hand. You can only use this effect of “Dark Magician of Chaos” once per turn. If this card destroys an opponent’s monster by battle, after damage calculation: Banish that opponent’s monster. If this face-up card would leave the field, banish it instead.

[Pictured: Dark Magician of Chaos]
The effect that adds a Spell Card to the hand now activates during the End Phase, and the effect that banishes opponent’s monsters is now a Trigger Effect.
•The (1) effect is a Trigger Effect that activates during the End Phase targeting a Spell Card in the Graveyard. The (2) effect is a Trigger Effect that activates when an opponent’s monster is destroyed by battle. The (3) effect is an unclassified effect that is applied when this card would leave the field.
•If a Normal or Special Summoned “Dark Magician of Chaos” is destroyed or otherwise leaves the field, its (1) effect cannot be activated.

Page 18

Updated rule (4): Rules for effects that say “cannot be used”

[TL note: “cannot be used” here is a translation for プレイできない (lit. “cannot be played”). Only two cards have this exact text to this date: “Prohibition” and “Psi-Blocker”. These rules do not necessarily apply for other conjugations of “using” a card]

There are new rules for effects that prohibit using a card. Specifically, all forms of placing the card from outside the field into the field are considered using the card.
[Pictured: Prohibition, Psi-Blocker]

Cannot be used means…

•The card cannot be Normal Summoned/Set or Flip Summoned. Also, its effects cannot be activated either.
•It cannot be Special Summoned by its own effects, procedures, or be Pendulum Summoned. Also, it cannot be Special Summoned by other card effects either.
•It cannot attack, nor change its battle position. However, its battle position can be changed by other card effects.
•It cannot be used as a Fusion, Synchro, or Xyz Material.
•It cannot be Set from the Deck or hand by other card effects. Also, if it is banished temporarily, it cannot be returned to the field.
•A monster that is treated as an Equip Card cannot be placed on the field as an Equip Card from places like the hand or Graveyard. Also, a card that “cannot be used” cannot be equipped by other card effects to other cards.
•If a monster that “cannot be used” is excavated by an effect like “Reasoning”, it cannot be Special Summoned and it is sent to the Graveyard.
•If a card declared by “Prohibition” is already on the field and it is sent to the Graveyard or otherwise leaves the field, it becomes unable to “be used” afterwards.
•It is possible to destroy it, banish it, or return it to the hand or Deck.
•It can be used as a cost to activate other card effects.
•A monster that is already on the field that is declared by “Prohibition” can be placed in the Spell & Trap Zone as an Equip Card.

Page 19

Chapter 2: Basic rules (pages 19-34)
A detailed explanation of the fundamental rules of the Yu-Gi-Oh! OCG and how to play.

Page 20

A lecture for beginners about the basics of the OCG

Basics of Dueling

A “Duel” occurs when you build a Deck to battle your opponent. Here we will explain the things you need to know before and during the Duel:
(1) Necessary items for Dueling (explained in this page)
(2) Victory conditions of a Duel (in page 21)
(3) Flow of the Duel (in page 21)
(4) The Dueling Field (in page 22)
(5) Card Types in the OCG (in page 23)
(6) Procedure of the Duel (in page 26)
(7) Normal and Special Summoning monsters (in page 28)
(8) How to battle (in page 32)

(1) Necessary items for Dueling

Main Deck (40-60 cards)

A bundle of Monster, Spell and Trap Cards put together to use in a Duel. Only 3 copies of cards with the same name can be included!

Extra Deck (0-15 cards)

Another bundle of cards that include monsters that can be summoned when certain conditions are met, separate from the Main Deck.

Side-Deck (0-15 cards)

A bundle of cards that includes cards to exchange with the Main Deck and Extra Deck in a Match where two Duels need to be won.

Calculator

Since changes in LP caused by battle or otherwise need to be accurate, it is useful to prepare one beforehand.

Note taking elements

Record the calculated LP in paper so that both players can verify the changes when they occur.

Coin/Dice

Prepare these in advance if you include cards that have effects that use these.

Monster Tokens

Prepare as many as these as they are necessary if you use cards that have effects that Special Summon tokens.

Page 21

(2) Victory conditions of a Duel

It’s fundamental to reduce the opponent’s LP to 0!!

If you manage to inflict damage to the opponent by battle or effects so that their LP is reduces to 0, you win. You can also win by making the opponent have 0 cards in their deck or through special card effects.

The 3 victory conditions of a Duel!!
(1) If the opponent’s LP are reduced to 0.
(2) If the opponent must draw a card and they are unable to draw a card.
(3) If the conditions for card effects that can win the Duel are met.

Attack with monsters!! [Pictured: Wattaildragon]
Inflict damage with card effects!! [Pictured: Poison of the Old Man]

(3) Flow of the Duel

Start the Duel with a hand of 5 cards and 8000 LP!!

Draw 5 cards from your Main Deck to begin the Duel. This is your starting hand.
[Pictured: Alexandrite Dragon, Odd-Eyes Dragon, Cyber Dragon, Mystical Space Typhoon, Mirror Force]
||
\/

Use cards and prepare for battle!!

Summon monsters from the hand and activate Spells and Traps to gain advantage!
[Pictured: Blade Knight (“Summon Monsters!”), Axe of Fools, Negate Attack (“Activate and Set Spells and Traps!!”)]
||
\/

Attack with the summoned monsters!!

Reduce your opponent’s LP by attacking with your monsters!
[Pictured: Blade Knight (“Attack monsters or the opponent!” => “Reduce the LP to 0 and win!”)]
||
\/

Win by reducing your opponent’s LP to 0!!
By repeatedly battling with monsters, inflict damage and reduce the opponent’s LP to 0 to win!

Page 22

(4) The Dueling Field

[Pictured: the Dueling field, grab your favorite Rulebook]

Monster Zones

The place where Normal or Special Summoned monsters are placed in. Each monster is placed in 1 of them, up to a maximum of 5 monsters.
[Pictured: D/D/D Dragon King Pendragon]

Spell & Trap Zones

The place where Spell and Trap Cards other than Field Spell Cards are placed in. Like Monster Zones, up to a maximum of 5 can be placed here.
[Pictured: Axe of Despair, Dust Tornado]

Deck Zone

The place where the Main Deck is placed in face-down. The contents cannot be verified in most cases, except when they are verified with an effect.

Extra Deck Zone

The place where the Extra Deck is placed in face-down. Unlike the Main Deck, you can verify the contents of your Extra Deck during the Duel.
[Pictured: Cairngorgon, Antiluminescent Knight, Phonon Pulse Dragon]

Graveyard

The place where destroyed monsters and used Spell and Trap Cards are placed in. Cards in the Graveyard can be verified by both players.

Field Zone

The place where Field Spell Cards are placed in. If a new card would be placed here, the previous card is sent to the Graveyard.

Pendulum Zones

The place where Pendulum Monsters activated as Spell Cards are placed in. There are two zones placed on the left and right sides of the field.

Other: Banished cards are placed outside of the field

Cards banished by effects are placed outside the field, making sure they do not mix with the cards on the field. There are also effects that allow you to reuse banished cards.
[Pictured: Battlin’ Boxer Big Bandage outside the right margin of the Dueling field, “banished!”, “place them so that they do not mix with cards on the field!”]

Page 23

(5) Card Types in the OCG

Card types are divided into 3 major categories

The cards used in the OCG are divided into the 3 major categories of Monster, Spell and Trap Cards, each with their own particularities. Since there are times effects will ask you to choose a card type, make sure to remember them.

[Not TL note: Here, the cards are pictured with small numbers on each section. This, too, is available in the basic Rulebook]

Monster Cards

The main factor in inflicting damage to the opponent through battle. There are monsters that have effects like Spell or Trap Cards do, and Normal Monsters that do not have effects.
Monster Cards are further explained in the following page!
[Pictured: Odd-Eyes Saber Dragon]

Spell Cards

These are cards that you can activate immediately from your hand. In most cases, they can only be activated during your Main Phase, but if Quick-Play Spell Cards only are set, they can be used during the opponent’s turn as well.
[Pictured: Ghostrick Parade]

Trap Cards

These are cards that are set face-down during your Main Phase and then can be activated since the next turn. There are many cards with effects to disrupt the opponent’s actions.
[Pictured: Jolt Counter]

Page 24

Monsters with Special Summoning requirements

Among Monster Cards, there are those that can be Special Summoned from various locations when special conditions are met. Since there are plenty of powerful monsters, make sure to carefully build your Deck with them.
[Once again, the various components of each card are broken down, but this time in more detail]

Pendulum Monsters

They possess the Pendulum Scales necessary to perform a Pendulum Summon. If they would be sent from the field to the Graveyard, they are added to the Extra Deck face-up instead, and they can be Special Summoned from the Extra Deck by a Pendulum Summon.

(1) Pendulum Scales:

The values that are used while performing a Pendulum Summon when this card is placed in a Pendulum Zone.

(2) Pendulum Effect:

Unlike Monster Effects, these are the effects that are applied if this card exists in a Pendulum Zone.

(3) Card Number:

The order number of the product in which this card is printed. It does not influence the effects or the ATK/DEF.

Peculiarities of Pendulum Monsters

•They posses a Pendulum Effect when used by being placed in a Pendulum Zone, aside from their Monster Effects.
•If a Pendulum Monster on the field would be sent from the field to the Graveyard, they are added to the Extra Deck face-up instead.
•A Pendulum Monster placed face-up in the Extra Deck can be Special Summoned by a Pendulum Summon.

[Additional information for Pendulum Summons using Pendulum Monsters can be found on Page 30]
[Pictured: Stargazer Magician]

Xyz Monsters

These are monsters that can be summoned when you assemble monsters with the same Level on the field. They do not possess a Level and they possess a value called Rank instead.

(1) Rank:

Xyz Monsters have a value named Rank instead of Levels.

(2) Xyz Materials necessary for a Summon

[A cropped “2 Level 4 monsters” is used as an example]

How to Xyz Summon

Stack the monsters on the field with the same Level, and stack an Xyz Monster from the Extra Deck on top of them to Xyz Summon it!
[Pictured: Dark Rebellion Dragon. Then, Performapal Whip Snake and Performapal Bowhopper, with the former being placed on top of the other, and then DRXD being placed on top of those. “Stack the materials”, “Xyz Summon!”]

Page 25

Synchro Monsters

These are monsters that can be summoned using monsters called Tuners by adding the same Levels and sending them to the Graveyard.

(1) Synchro Materials necessary for a Summon

[A cropped “1 Tuner + 1 or more non-Tuner monsters”]

How to Synchro Summon

Send the Synchro Materials from the field to the Graveyard and Special Summon a Synchro Monster from the Extra Deck whose Level equals the sum of their Levels!
[Pictured: Clear Wing Synchro Dragon, “Tuner” Ghost Ogre & Snow Rabbit + “non-Tuner monster” Performage Damage Juggler, “send the Materials to the Graveyard => Clear Wing Synchro Dragon “Synchro Summon!”]

Fusion Monsters

These are monsters that can be summoned by a Fusion Summon using the Polymerization Spell Card and Fusion Materials. The necessary Fusion Materials are listed in each Fusion Monster.

(1) Fusion Materials necessary for a Summon

[A cropped “Edge Imp Sabres + Fluffal Bear”]

How to Fusion Summon

Activate a Polymerization Spell or something similar, send the necessary Fusion Material monsters for the Summon from the hand or field or otherwise to the Graveyard and Special Summon from the Extra Deck!
[Pictured: Frightfur Bear, Edge Imp Sabres and Fluffal Bear (“Material Monsters”) + Polymerization (“Polymerization Spell”) => Frightfur Bear “Fusion Summon!”]

[TL note: “Polymerization Spell” is being used here for 融合魔法, Fusion Spell, as Polymerization’s JP name is plainly “Fusion”. This, of course, means a Spell that acts like Polymerization without necessarily being named “Polymerization”, but it doesn’t translate as well.]

Ritual Monsters

These are monsters that can be Summoned from the hand by Ritual Spell Cards. It is also necessary to Tribute monsters according to the Level of the monster that would be Summoned.

(1) Levels necessary for the tribute

[Pictured: a crop of 9 Level stars]

How to Ritual Summon

Activate a Ritual Spell Card, Tribute monsters on the hand or field to meet the requirements specified in the Ritual Spell Card and Special Summon!
[Pictured: Nekroz of Trishula, Exa, Enforcer of the Nekroz and Great Sorcerer of the Nekroz “tribute” + Nekroz Mirror “Ritual Spell” => Nekroz of Trishula “Ritual Summon!”]

Page 26

(6) Procedure of the Duel

Remember the flow of the game!
Here we will explain how the Duel flows in most cases. After the Duel preparations are over both players take turns, using their cards to progress through the Duel.
Duel Preparation 1: First greet your opponent!
Duel Preparation 2: Shuffle your Deck
Duel Preparation 3: Cut the opponent’s Deck
Duel Preparation 4: Decide who goes first via rock-paper-scissors
Duel Preparation 5: Draw 5 cards from your Deck

After the preparations are over start the Duel!!

Draw Phase

The phase in which you strengthen your hand by drawing a card from your Deck. However, keep in mind that the player who goes first cannot draw a card during their first turn.

Remember that the player who goes first cannot draw a card during their first turn!

[Pictured: Exploder Dragon, being drawn from a Deck. “Draw a card!”]
||
\/

Standby Phase

Usually nothing special happens in this Phase and you simply proceed to Main Phase 1, but if someone wants to activate a Quick-Play Spell or Trap before Main Phase 1, they can do so now. There are also effects that are used during this phase.
||
\/

Move to Main Phase 1!

Page 27

Main Phase 1

This is the phase where you can Summon monsters or set up the tactics to activate Spells and Traps. After the player who goes first ends the Main Phase 1 of their first turn, they proceed to the End Phase.
[Pictured: Goblin Elite Attack Force, D/D/D Dragon King Pendragon]
•Summon or Special Summon monsters
•Activate the effects of monsters
[Pictured: Trap Hole]
Activate or set Spells or Traps
[Pictured: Axe Dragonute, vertical <=> horizontal]
Change the battle positions of monsters
||
|| If you do not want to conduct your Battle Phase, move to End Phase!
\/

Battle Phase

This is the phase where you start attacking with your Summoned monsters and inflict damage to the opponent. If you reduce the opponent’s LP to 0, you win! Also, remember that the player who goes first cannot conduct their Battle Phase during their first turn.

Details on how to battle are explained in page 32 =>

[Pictured: D/D/D Dragon King Pendragon => Skelengel, “Attack with your summoned monsters!”]
||
\/

Main Phase 2

Can only be conducted after ending the Battle Phase. This phase is fundamentally the same as Main Phase 1, but remember that if you Normal or Pendulum Summoned during Main Phase 1, you cannot perform those during Main Phase 2!
||
\/

End Phase

Resolve the effects that activate or apply during this phase. Then if your hand has 7 or more cards, discard until it has 6 cards and end the turn.
[Pictured: a hand composed of 7 effects monsters, with the 7th slot being removed, “discard until it is reduced to 6”]
||
\/

<>Move towards the step of the opponent’s turn!!

Page 28

(7) Normal and Special Summoning monsters

Normal Summons and Special Summons
You can perform 1 Normal Summon turn and any number of Special Summons for which you meet the requirements. However, you can only perform 1 Pendulum Summon per turn, despite being a Special Summon.

Only possible once per turn

Normal Summoning a Level 4 or lower monster

A form of Normal Summoning/Setting. A Level 4 or lower monster can be placed from your hand in face-up Attack Position.
[Pictured: Terratiger, the Empowered Warrior being placed vertically in a Monster Zone, “Normal Summon from the hand in face-up Attack Position!”]

Setting

A form of Normal Summoning/Setting. A monster can be placed from the hand on the field in face-down Defense Position.
[Pictured: A monster in face-down Defense Position. “Set from the hand in face-down Defense Position”]
[Pictured: Mystical Elf in Defense Position. “you cannot Normal Summon in face-up Defense Position”]

Normal Summoning a Level 5 or higher monster (Tribute Summon)

If a Level 5 or higher monster would be Normal Summoned, 1 monster needs to be tributed for Level 5-6 monsters and 2 monsters need to be tributed for Level 7 monsters in order to Normal Summon them or set them. This is called a Tribute Summon.
[Pictured: Blue Dragon Summoner being moved from a Monster Zone to the Graveyard, “tribute a monster from the field” => Pictured: Wattaildragon => “Tribute Summon from the hand”, pictured: Wattaildragon in a Monster Zone, Blue Dragon Summoner in the Graveyard”]

What is Tributing?

Sending a monster from the hand or field to the Graveyard for a Tribute Summon or to activate effects is called Tributing.

Pendulum Summoning

This is a Summoning method that can Special Summon up to a maximum of 5 monsters from the hand or Extra Deck. It can only be performed once per turn, like a Normal Summon.
[Pictured: Stargazer Magician, “Pendulum Monster”, explained in detail in page 30]

Battle positions of monsters

There are 3 battle positions for monsters: face-up Attack Position, face-up Defense Position and face-down Defense Position.
[Pictured: Hunter Dragon, vertical, horizontal, and a horizontal face-down card, representing these positions]

Page 29

Possible any number of times per turn!

Flip Summon

Changing a face-down Defense Position monster to face-up Attack Position is called a Flip Summon. Keep in mind a Flip Summon is not a Normal Summon nor a Special Summon.
[Pictured: A horizontal face-down card, “change from face-down” => pictured: Green Turtle Summoner, “to face-up Attack Position”]

Battle position changes

You can change the battle position of a monster you control once per turn. However, you can only change it from face-up Attack Position to face-up Defense Position, vice-versa, and from face-down Defense Position to face-up Attack Position (= Flip Summon). Keep in mind you cannot change a monster from being face-up to face-down Defense Position.

Special Summoning

Special Summons by card effects

A Special Summon as a result of a monster’s own effects by meeting requirements, or by monster effects that Summon other monsters, Spells or Traps.
[Pictured: Cyber Dragon, “Cyber Dragon”, “explained in detail in page 65!”]

Xyz Summoning

A Special Summon that Summons an Xyz Monster from the Extra Deck by assembling face-up monsters with the same Levels on your side of the field.
[Pictured: Raidraptor – Revolution Falcon, “Xyz Monsters”, “explained in detail in page 75!”]

Synchro Summoning

A Special Summon that summons a Synchro Monster from the Extra Deck by adding the Levels of Tuner and non-Tuner monsters as Materials.
[Pictured: Chaofeng, Phantom of the Yang Zing, “Synchro Monsters”, “explained in detail in page 73!”]

Fusion Summoning

A Special Summon that Summons a Fusion Monster from the Extra Deck by using the appropriate Polymerization Spell for each Fusion Monster using Fusion Materials.
[Pictured: Frightfur Leo, “Fusion Monsters”, “explained in detail in page 70!”]

Ritual Summoning

A Special Summon that Summons Ritual Monsters from the hand, by activating the corresponding Ritual Spell for each Ritual Monster, Tributing monsters with the appropriate Levels.
[Pictured: Nekroz of Sophia, “Ritual Monsters”, “explained in detail in page 68!”]

Page 30

The latest summoning method that keeps Dueling evolving

This iS Pendulum Summoning!!!

[1] Pendulum Summoning, point 1: Pendulum Scales are essential.

The Level of monsters that you can Pendulum Summon are determined by Pendulum Scales. Check the Pendulum Scales that your monsters have.
[Pictured: Stargazer Magician and Timegazer Magician, with their Pendulum Scales of 1 and 8 zoomed in]

[2] Pendulum Summoning, point 2: A maximum of 5 monsters can be Special Summoned simultaneously!!

Pendulum Summoning is a method in which up to 5 monsters can be Special Summoned from the hand. Depending of the Pendulum Scales, you can even suddenly Special Summon high-Level monsters.
[Pictured: A field full of monsters being Summoned, “you can Special Summon up to a maximum of 5 monsters!!”]

[3] Pendulum Summoning, point 3: Pendulum Monsters in the Extra Deck can also be Summoned!!

Face-up Pendulum Monsters in the Extra Deck can be Special Summoned by a Pendulum Summon. By using this trait, you can minimize the consumption of your hand and maximize the number of monsters on your field.
[Pictured: monsters being Summoned from the Extra Deck]

Page 31

How to Pendulum Summon

Place 2 Pendulum Monsters on the field

Activate 2 Pendulum Monster Cards with different Pendulum Scales from the hand in each Pendulum Zone and you are ready to go! It doesn’t matter if you place them in the left or right Zones, and they do not need to be activated in the same turn.

Declare you are performing a Pendulum Summon!

If the 2 Pendulum Monsters have been placed, you can declare a Pendulum Summon during your Main Phase! However, since you can only perform 1 Pendulum Summon per turn, keep an eye out for Spells and Traps on the opponent’s field and look for an opportunity!!
||
\/

It is possible to Pendulum Summon a maximum of 5 monsters!

After declaring it, the Pendulum Summon is performed. The Level of the monsters that can be Special Summoned are the values between the Pendulum Scales in the left and right. Choose up to 5 monsters, and finish the Special Summon!!
Example: If the Pendulum Scales are 1 and 8, monsters of Levels 2 to 7 can be summoned!
[Pictured: Scales 1 and 8 / 8 and 1, “it is OK to place them from higher to lower or vice-versa!!”]

[4] Pendulum Summoning, point 3: Choose the battle positions of the monsters that will be Pendulum Summoned!!

Since Pendulum Summoning is a Special Summon, you can choose whether to place them on the field in face-up Attack Position or face-up Defense Position.
[Pictured: Performapal Fire Mufflerlion, “Attack Position”, Performapal Cheermole, “Defense Position”, Performapal Skeeter Skimmer, “Defense Position”]

Page 32

(8) How to battle

Attack repeatedly and reduce your opponent’s LP to 0!

The results of battling, a fundamental way to reduce LP, are determined by the battle positions of monsters. Keep an eye on the status of the opponent’s field to effectively inflict damage.

[1] Basics of the Battle Phase 1: You can attack once with each of your monsters!

[2] Basics of the Battle Phase 2: The results of a battle vary according to the battle positions of your opponent’s monsters!

If an opponent’s Attack Position monster is attacked

[Pictured: your Odd-Eyes Saber Dragon and the opponent’s Goblin Elite Attack Force, “compare your ATK (2800) with the opponent’s ATK (2200)]

If your ATK is higher

•Inflict the difference with the lower ATK to the opponent’s LP.
•The opponent’s monster is destroyed and sent to the Graveyard.
[Pictured: Odd-Eyes Saber Dragon, “victory & damage to the opponent!!”]

If the opponent’s ATK is higher

•You take damage equal to the difference with the lower ATK.
•Your monster is destroyed and sent to the Graveyard.
[Pictured: Ritual Beast Ulti-Gaiapelio, “defeat & you take damage!!]

If your ATK is equal to the opponent’s ATK

•Both monsters are destroyed and neither player takes damage.
[Pictured: Odd-Eyes Saber Dragon and Chaofeng, Phantom of the Yang Zing, “both are destroyed & no damage!!”]

Page 33

If the opponent’s monster is in Defense Position

[Pictured: Your Infernoid Sjette and the opponent’s Mystical Elf, “Compare your ATK (2400) with the opponent’s DEF (2000)”]

If your ATK is higher

•Neither player takes damage.
•The opponent’s monster is destroyed and sent to the Graveyard.
[Pictured: Infernoid Sjette, “victory and no damage!”]

If the opponent’s DEF is higher

•You take DEF equal to the difference with the DEF.
•Neither monster is destroyed.
[Pictured: Millenium Shield, “neither monster is destroyed and you take damage!”]

If your ATK is equal to the opponent’s DEF

•Neither monster is destroyed and neither player takes damage.
[Pictured: Infernoid Sjette, Performapal Springoose, “neither monster is destroyed and no damage occurs]

If the opponent controls no monsters

[Pictured: Madolche Puddingcess Chocolat-a-la-Mode => “the opponent has no monsters”, “your ATK (2500)”, “attack the opponent directly”]
Inflict your ATK as damage!!
•The ATK of the monster is inflicted to the opponent’s LP as damage.
[Pictured: Madolche Puddingcess Chocolat-a-la-Mode again, “try to inflict big damage through a direct attack!”]

The Battle Phase is divided in 4 steps.
Detailed information about the Battle Phase can be found in page 162!!

Page 34

[A plug for the Konami Card Game Station in Japan.]

Page 35

Master Rules 3
[1] Outline of the OCG: Page 36
[2] The field for Dueling: Page 40
[3] Cards: Page 46
[4] Card Effects: Page 103
[5] Text that is not an effect: Page 153
[6] Progress of the game: Page 158
[7] Tournament rules: Page 175 [Not doing this one, it’s a very basic rundown of some tournament policies, and these vary depending on the tournament, the region, etc.]

A section detailing each particular rule of the Yu-Gi-Oh! OCG. Aim to learn these and become an advanced player.

[This section uses a small graphic of 6 squares to show the difficulty of each item. There are no graphics here, so just infer that a topic like “? ATK” is a more difficult topic than just the basic understanding of ATK/DEF, specially since they are written in that order]

Page 36

[1] Outline of the OCG

1.1 What is a Duel?

•The Yu-Gi-Oh! ARC-v Official Card Game (from now on “OCG”) is a game generally played by 2 people. Deciding the first victory and defeat by the rules of the OCG is called a “Duel”.
•A game in the OCG fundamentally consists of performing a Match, in which a maximum of 3 Duels are performed, and where the first player to win twice is the overall winner.

1.2 Items necessary for Dueling

•When conducting a Duel, it is necessary for each player to prepare a Main Deck that uses OCG cards, as well as dice, a coin, tokens, counters and similar items to resolve their card effects and paper and something to write to keep track of their LP.

Main Deck

•A Main Deck is the bundle of cards that you use in a Duel.
•A Main Deck must have from 40 to 60 cards.
•Cards from the Extra Deck and Side-Deck are not included towards the number of cards in the Main Deck.
•Fusion, Synchro, and Xyz Monsters cannot be included in the Main Deck, and are included in the Extra Deck instead.
[Pictured: Cyber Twin Dragon, “Fusion Monsters”, Celestial Wolf Lord, Blue Sirius, “Synchro Monsters”, Bujinki Amaterasu, “Xyz Monsters”]
•Only 3 copies of cards with the same name can be included in the Main Deck, Extra Deck and Side-Deck.

Page 37

Definition of cards with the same name

•Cards with the same name are cards with the same name as other cards.
•Even if the illustration, rarity or card number is different, if the card name of each card is the same, they are treated as cards with the same name.
•If cards with an effect that say “This card’s name is always treated as […]” are included in the Deck, the card is treated as having that card name.
Example: Since “Cyber Harpie Lady” says “(This card’s name is always treated as “Harpie Lady”.)”, you can only include up to 3 copies in total of “Harpie Lady” and “Cyber Harpie Lady” in your Main Deck.
[Pictured: Cyber Harpie Lady + Harpie Lady, “only 3 copies can be combined in the Main Deck”]
•Up to 3 copies of cards that are treated as having a different name by an effect can be included separately from cards with the name that is provided by that effect.
[Pictured: “3 copies of” Cyber Dragon, “3 copies of” Cyber Dragon Drei, “you can include 3 copies of each!”]

Page 38

Extra Deck

•Fusion Monster Cards, Synchro Monster Cards, and Xyz Monster Cards are cards that are included in the Extra Deck.
•An Extra Deck must have from 0 to 15 cards.
[Pictured: Blue-Eyes Ultimate Dragon, “Fusion Monsters”, Stardust Dragon, “Synchro Monsters”, Number 39: Utopia, “Xyz Monsters”]

Side-Deck

•It is a good idea to prepare a Side-Deck separate from the Main Deck, in which you prepare cards to use to adjust your Deck between Duels.
•You can only combine up to 3 copies of the same card between the Main Deck, Side-Deck and Extra Deck.
•A Side-Deck must have from 0 to 15 cards.
•You can also include Fusion, Synchro or Xyz Monsters in the Side-Deck.
•You can exchange cards from the Main Deck and Side-Deck with the Extra Deck between Duels during a Match. However, the number of cards in the Main Deck, Extra Deck and Side-Deck before the exchange and after the exchange must be the same.

Players

•People conducting a Duel are called players. Also, the player conducting a turn at the time is called the turn player.
•If the “opponent” is written in a card effect, it usually means the opposite player of the player using that effect.

Page 39

Victory Conditions of a Duel

•If either player meets a victory condition, the Duel is over. There are a number of victory conditions in a Duel.

LP

•Both players have 8000 LP when the Duel begins.
•LP is reduced through taking damage by battles or card effects.
•When the respective opponent of a player has their LP become 0 by battle damage or effects, that player wins the Duel.
•If you take damage by battle or card effects, or if you lose LP by an effect so that your LP is equal or lower than 0, the LP do not become negative and they become 0.
•If LP is paid to activate a card or effect, you cannot pay more LP than your remaining LP. If the LP becomes exactly 0, the cost can be paid.
•If the LP becomes 0 during the resolution of an effect or a chain, even if it is known that there is an effect that would restore LP or something similar that would make the LP become 1 or higher, the player loses at the time the LP becomes 0.

If the player is unable to draw

•If the opponent’s Deck has 0 cards, when the opponent must draw a card and they are unable to draw any more cards, you win the Duel.
•Even if an effect that makes the player add cards from the Deck to the hand, or send cards from the Deck to the Graveyard, or something similar is activated when there are no cards left in the Deck, this only causes the effect to become unable to resolve but the player is not defeated.

Victory conditions of special cards

•There are win conditions that can be achieved by the methods written in special cards.

Draw

•If the LP of both players becomes 0 by a card effect, or if both players resolve an effect that makes them draw when neither player has cards in the Deck, that Duel becomes a draw.

Page 40

[2] The field for Dueling

•During a Duel, cards are placed in the determined Zones.
•Depending on which Zones the cards are placed in, they can either be verified by both players, only by the owner or controller, or by neither player.

2.1 Dueling Field

•The Dueling field is the place where cards used for a Duel are placed in.
•The Zones in which cards are placed depends on their type and status.
•”Cards on the field” means cards in a Monster Zones, Spell & Trap Zones, Field Zones and Pendulum Zones.
•If an effect simply says “card(s) on the field” without specifying yours or the opponent’s, the effect can affect both player’s Monster Zones, Spell & Trap Zones, Field Zones and Pendulum Zones.

[Pictured: the Dueling Field]

Monster Zones (Monster Card Zones)

•This is the place where Normal and Special Summoned monsters are placed on the field.
•You can place up to a maximum of 5 monsters in your Monster Zones.
•If Spell or Trap Cards are placed in a Monster Zone by some effect or resolution, they are treated as monsters. If that effect says “(This card is also still a Trap Card.)”, the Trap Card placed in a Monster Zone is treated as a Monster and a Trap Card.
•A monster placed in a Monster Zone cannot be moved to a different Monster Zone as long as an effect or resolution is not performed.

Page 41

Spell & Trap Zone (Spell & Trap Card Zone)

•This is the place where Spell and Trap Cards can be activated or set in.
•You can place up to a maximum of 5 cards in your Spell & Trap Zone.
•If you already have 5 cards in your Spell & Trap Zones, you cannot activated or set new Spell or Trap Cards in your Spell & Trap Zone.
•A card placed in a Spell & Trap Zone cannot be moved to a different Spell & Trap Zone.
•Since Field Spell Cards can only be placed in the Field Zone, they cannot be placed in the Spell & Trap Zone.
•If a Monster Card is placed in the Spell & Trap Zone by some effect or resolution, it is treated as a Spell Card.

Graveyard

•This is the place where cards that are destroyed or sent to the Graveyard are sent to.
•The information and number of cards in the Graveyard is public knowledge. Both players can always verify the cards in the Graveyard.
•The order of cards in the Graveyard cannot be changed.
•If multiple cards are sent to the Graveyard simultaneously, it is the owner of those cards that decides the order in which they are placed in the Graveyard, regardless of the controller of the effect.
•If cards are sent to the Graveyard, they are always sent to the owner’s Graveyard.
Example: If you gain control of an opponent’s monster by the effect of “Enemy Controller” that says “take control of that target until the End Phase.” and it is sent from your side of the field to the Graveyard, it is sent to the opponent’s, that is to say, the owner’s Graveyard.

[Pictured: Enemy Controller, “Even if you take control, it is sent to the owner’s Graveyard”]

Page 42

Deck Zone

•This is the place where your Main Deck is placed face-down in.
•The cards in your Main Deck are always private. Aside from effects that let you search cards in the Deck like “add a card from the Deck to the hand” or “Special Summon a monster from the Deck”, the order and information of cards in the Deck cannot be verified by either player.
•The number of cards in the Main Deck is public knowledge. Both players can always verify the number of cards in the Deck.
•If an effect that searches cards in the Deck is resolved, the Main Deck must always be shuffled after resolving that effect.
•If an effect only says “Deck”, without specifying yours or the opponent’s, that effect can only affect your Deck.

Field Zone (Field Card Zone)

•This is the place where Field Spell Cards can be activated or Set in.
•Each player can only place 1 Field Spell Card in each Field Zone. Also, these are not treated as cards in the Spell & Trap Zone.
Example: The effect of “Treeborn Frog” that can be activated if “You must control no Spell/Trap Cards to activate and to resolve this effect.[is fulfilled] cannot be activated if there is a Field Spell Card. Also, the effect of “Snow Plow Hustle Rustle” that says “When your opponent’s monster declares a direct attack, if you control a card(s) in your Spell & Trap Card Zone:” cannot be activated if the only Spell & Trap Cards you control are in your Field Zone.

[Pictured: Treeborn Frog, “cannot activate” <= Dragon Ravine => Snow Plow Hustle Rustle, “cannot activate”]

Page 43

Extra Deck Zone

•This is the place the Fusion Monster Cards, Synchro Monster Cards, and Xyz Monster Cards placed in the Extra Deck are placed face-down in.
•The player who owns the cards in the Extra Deck can always verify them. Also, their order can be changed during the Duel.
•The face-down cards in the Extra Deck are private to the opponent.
•The number of cards in the Extra Deck is public knowledge. Both players can always verify the number of cards in both Extra Decks.

Pendulum Monsters added to the Extra Deck face-up

•Pendulum Monsters sent from the field to the Graveyard are not sent to the Graveyard and are added to the Extra Deck instead. In that case, they are added to the Extra Deck face-up.
•The Pendulum Monsters that were added to the Extra Deck face-up are public knowledge. Both players can always verify the face-up cards in both Extra Decks.

Pendulum Zones

•This is the place where Pendulum Monsters activated as Spell Cards are placed in.
•There is a Pendulum Zone on the left and on the right to place a total of 2 Pendulum Monsters.
•Pendulum Monsters placed in the Pendulum Zone are not treated as monsters and are treated as Spell Cards. However, they are not treated as cards in the Spell & Trap Zone.
•A card placed in a Pendulum Zone remains on the field as long as there are no effects involved, and cannot be moved from that Zone.

Page 44

2.2 Hand

•Players hold the cards they draw from the Deck or otherwise during the Duel as a hand.
•The cards in the hand are private information to the opponent. Also, cards in the hand do not have an order.
•The number of cards in the hand is public knowledge. Both players can always verify the number of cards in the hand.
•If the turn player has 7 or more cards in their hand, that player must discard cards from their hand to the Graveyard until they have 6 cards when the End Phase ends. Cards discarded by this resolution are not treated as being discarded by a card effect.
•In most cases if an effect that says “send cards from the hand to the Graveyard” or “Special Summon from the hand” does not specify yours or the opponent’s, the effect can only affect cards in your hand.
•If a monster effect in the hand is activated, the activation is declared by showing that card to the opponent.
[Pictured: Effect Veiler, Lightning, Dragon Ruler of Drafts, “effects that activate in the hand”]
•If a card is revealed to the hand to the opponent by a particular effect, the card in the hand becomes public knowledge. If the effect that revealed the card is no longer applied, that card becomes private.

Page 45

2.3 Banished

•Cards that are banished from play by card effects are placed outside of the Dueling Field.
•Banished cards are not placed in any appointed Zone of the Dueling Field, but the cards of each player must be placed in one place in which they can be distinguished.
•In most cases, if it is not specified that cards are banished face-up or face-down, they are banished face-up. The information of cards banished face-up and the number of banished cards is public knowledge. Both players can always verify face-up banished cards and the total number of banished cards.
•In most cases, banished cards are treated as cards from their owner. However, if a card is banished temporarily and later returned to the field with cards like “Interdimensional Matter Transporter”, they are treated as cards from their owner while they are banished, but when they are returned to the field, they are returned to their controller before they were banished.
[Pictured: Interdimensional Matter Transporter, “<= temporarily banished and then returned = to the recent controller!”]

Face-down cards

•Cards banished by an effect that says “banish face-down” are banished face-down. Face-down banished cards are private information.
•If cards are banished face-down, in most cases only the owner can verify them.

Page 46

[3] Cards

3.1 How to read cards

•The most recent information written in a card like their name can be found in the OCG Card Database. (URL => http://www.db.yugioh-card.com/)
[Pictured: Ventdra, the Empowered Warrior, with its Card Name, Attribute/Classification and Card Number highlighted]

Attribute/Classification

•The cards of the OCG are divided in 3 primary groups: Monster Cards, Spell Cards and Trap Cards.
•A card with the ”地” (EARTH), ”水” (WATER), ”炎” (FIRE),  ”風” (WIND), ”光” (LIGHT), ”闇” (DARK) or ”神” (DIVINE) Attribute icon next to its name are Monster Cards, those with the 魔 (SPELL) icon are Spell Cards, and those with the 罠 (TRAP) icon are Trap Cards.

[Pictured: Warrior Dai Grepher, “Attribute Icon, Monster Card”, Supply Squad, “Spell icon, Spell Card”, Soul Resurrection, “Trap Icon, Trap Card”]

Page 47

Card name

•When a card is activated or when a card name is declared for an effect, only card names that exist in the OCG can be declared. Also, cards that cannot be used in a sanctioned Duel cannot be declared.
•If a card whose name is treated as the name of a different card activates or applies its effects, that effect is treated as the effect of a card of a card with the name it has at the moment.
Example: If a “Number 8: Heraldic King Genom-Heritage” treated as “Number 39: Utopia” activates its effect, that effect is activated as the effect of “Number 39: Utopia”.
•If an effect reads “You can only use this effect of [a particular card name] once per turn“, this is not influenced by changes to the card’s name on the field.
Example: If the effect of “Fairy Archer” that says “During your Main Phase, you can inflict 400 damage to your opponent for each face-up LIGHT monster you control. This card cannot attack during the same turn you activate this effect. Only one “Fairy Archer” can have its effect activated per turn.” is activated, and later its name changes by the effect of another card, the effect of the “Fairy Archer” that had its name changed during that turn cannot be activated.
[TL note: Fairy Archer does not have PSCT at the time this is written, so it does not read as the template restriction to cards with the same name]
•Monsters that read “(This card’s name is always treated as [a particular card name])“, have their name always treated as that name, even while in the Deck, hand, Graveyard, or otherwise outside of the field.
•Monsters that read “(this card is always treated as [a particular title] card.)” are treated as including that title in their card name.
Example: “Superheavy Samurai Soulbeads” can be equipped by the effect that reads “You can target 1 “Superheavy Samurai” monster you control; equip this monster from your hand or your side of the field to that target.” to a “Superheavy Samurai Ogre Shutendoji” that reads “(This card is always treated as a “Superheavy Samurai” card.)“.
[TL note: “Superheavy Samurai Ogre Shutendoji” does not have that clause in its TCG text, as they opted to include the “Superheavy Samurai” in the printed card name in the first place. The OCG name of “Superheavy Samurai Ogre Shutendoji” (超重神鬼シュテンドウ-G) is not written as a “Superheavy Samurai” card (超重武者), so it has that clause.]

Card Number

•The card number is used to show the product in which the card was printed. The card number is text that is not used during the Duel.

Page 48

Monster Card Description

[Pictured: Number C6: Chronomaly Chaos Atlandis, with its Attribute, Level/Rank, Type, Summoning Method/Ability, Monster Information and ATK/DEF highlighted]

Level/Rank

•The symbols under the monster’s name are that monster’s Level or Rank.
•The number of [Level Star] symbols indicate that monster’s Level. Xyz Monsters do not have a Level.
•The number of [Rank Star] symbols indicate that monster’s Rank. Monsters that are not Xyz Monsters do not have a Rank.
•If the Level/Rank of a monster is changed by a card effect, the Level/Rank of that card is only treated as the modified value. No single card is treated as having 2 or more Level/Ranks simultaneously. Also, the modified Level/Rank is not treated as the original Level/Rank.

Attribute

•The symbol written to the right side of the card name is the Attribute.
•If the Attribute is changed by another card effect, the card is only treated as having the modified Attribute.
•If a card says “this card is also […]-Attribute“, its Attribute is treated as being of that Attribute by the card effect in addition to its original Attribute, as long as it remains face-up on the field. However, the modified Attribute is not treated as the original Attribute.

Page 49

Type

•The text that says […]-Type on the top-left of the Monster Information is the Type of that monster.
•If the Type changes by a card effect, the Type of that card is only treated as that Type. No single card is treated as having 2 or more Types simultaneously. Also, the modified Type is not treated as the original Type.
[Pictured: DNA Surgery =>”Warrior-Type”, Mystical Elf, “only treated as Warrior-Type”]

Summoning Method/Ability

•The text written to the right of the Type is that monster’s Summoning Method and its Abilities.
•If that monster has a particular Special Summoning method, that monster will have the corresponding “Fusion”, “Ritual”, “Synchro”, “Xyz” or “Special Summon” descriptor.
[TL note: 特集召喚, the Special Summon monster descriptor, is not available in the TCG at the time this is written.]
•If that monster has a particular Ability, that monster will have the corresponding “Flip”, “Toon”, “Spirit”, “Union” or “Gemini” descriptor.
•Monsters that read “Tuner” or “Pendulum” belong to those Types of monsters.
•Monsters that read “Effect” are Effect Monsters.

[Pictured: Puralis, the Purple Pyrotile, “Synchro/Tuner”, Nikitama, “Spirit”]

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ATK/DEF

•The value written after “ATK/” under the Monster Information is that monster’s ATK power. Also, the value written after “DEF/” is that monster’s DEF power.
•If an effect references “the original ATK or DEF”, it references the values written in the card. However, if “the original ATK or DEF” is modified by a card effect, the modified value is treated as that card’s original ATK or DEF.
•If the ATK or DEF of a monster outside the field is referenced, the written ATK or DEF in the card is referenced.

Monsters with “?” values

•Monsters with “?” ATK or DEF values are monsters that modify those values by their own effects.
•When the values cannot be modified by their own effects, those values are treated as 0 when those monsters are on the field.
•When a monster with “?” values is in the Deck or Graveyard, those values are treated as undefined and they cannot be chosen for effects that choose monsters that have a particular ATK or DEF.
Example: A “Tragoedia” with “?” ATK cannot be Special Summoned from the Deck with the effect of “Mystic Tomato” that reads “You can Special Summon 1 DARK monster with 1500 or less ATK from your Deck, in face-up Attack Position.“.
[Pictured: Mystic Tomato => “Cannot Special Summon” Tragoedia]

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Monster Information

•The text written under the monster’s Type, Summoning Method or Abilities is the Monster Information.
•The text written in the Monster Information of Normal Monster Cards is information that does not affect the Duel.
•The text written in the Monster Information of Monster Cards that are not Normal Monsters lists the requirements to place that monster on the field, its Materials, or the effects that the monster has.
•The first line of the Monster Information of Fusion Monsters, Synchro Monsters and Xyz Monsters lists the Materials used for the particular method to place that monster on the field.
•There are some Fusion and Synchro Monsters that do not list Materials. Those monsters can be placed on the field by the method written in their text.

Description of Pendulum Monsters

•Pendulum Monster Cards have Pendulum Scales and Pendulum Effects in addition to other Monster Information.
[Pictured: Stargazer Magician, with its Pendulum Scales and Pendulum Effect highlighted, “Pendulum Monster”]

Pendulum Scale

•Pendulum Monsters have Pendulum Scales used while performing a Pendulum Summon.

Pendulum Effect

•The text written between the Pendulum Scales is the effect applied while placed in a Pendulum Zone.

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Spell Card Description

[Pictured: Ego Boost, with its Effect Icon and Effect Explanation highlighted]

Types of Spell Cards

•Cards that have the “魔” icon to the right side of their name are Spell Cards.
•Spell Cards that do not have any particular Effect Icon are Normal Spell Cards.
•If there is an Effect Icon under the card name, that card belongs to one of the following Spell Card types:
•If the [Ritual Icon] is written in the Spell, it is a Ritual Spell.
•If the [Continuous Icon] is written in the Spell, it is a Continuous Spell.
•If the [Equip Icon] is written in the Spell, it is a Equip Spell.
•If the [Field Icon] is written in the Spell, it is a Field Spell.
•If the [Quick-Play Icon] is written in the Spell, it is a Quick-Play Spell.

[Pictured: Axe of Despair, “Equip Spell”, Supply Squad, “Continuous Spell”, Ghostrick Parade, “Field Spell”]

Effect Explanation

•The text written under the illustration is the effect of that Spell Card.

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Trap Card description

[Pictured: Shadow Spell, with its Effect Icon and Effect Explanation highlighted]

Types of Trap Cards

•Cards that have the “罠” icon to the right side of their name are Trap Cards.
•Trap Cards that do not have a particular Effect Icon are Normal Trap Cards.
•If there is an Effect Icon under the card name, that card belongs to one of the following Trap Card types:
•If the [Continuous Icon] is written in the Trap, it is a Continuous Trap.
•If the [Counter Icon] is written in the trap, it is a Counter Trap.

[Pictured: Raigeki Break, “Normal Spell”, Fiendish Chain, “Continuous Trap”, Drastic Drop Off, “Counter Trap Card”]

Effect Explanation

•The text written under the illustration is the effect of that Trap Card.

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3.2 Monsters

Monster Types

•Monsters are divided as Normal Monsters and Effect Monsters. However, Ritual/Fusion/Synchro/Xyz Monsters that do not have an effect are not treated as Normal Monsters as well.
•All monsters that have effects are Effect Monsters. However, a monster that is applying its own effect that “treats it as a Normal Monster” is not treated as an Effect Monster while that effect is applied.
[Pictured: Knight Day Grepher, “treated as a Normal Monster”]

Normal Monsters

•Monsters whose border is yellow, do not have an effect text written in their Monster Information, and do not have Monster Effects, are called Normal Monsters.
•Monsters that do not have a Summoning Method or “Effect” to the right side of their Type, or that do not have an ability other than “Tuner” or “Pendulum”, are Normal Monsters.
[Pictured: Labradorite Dragon, Igknight Paladin]

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Effect Monsters

•Monsters that have effect text written in their Monster Information are called Effect Monsters. Also, monsters that say “Effect” to the right side of their Type are Effect Monsters.
•If a monster that is not an Effect Monster gains an effect by the effect of another card that says “gains this effect […]”, that monster is treated as an Effect Monster.
Example: Since a “Gem-Knight Pearl” Xyz Summoned by using “Gagaga Girl” and “Gagaga Magician” as Xyz Materials gains the effect that says “● When it is Xyz Summoned: You can target 1 Special Summoned monster your opponent controls; its ATK becomes 0.” by the effect of “Gagaga Girl”, it is treated as an Effect Monster.
[Pictured: “Treated as an Effect Monster!” Gem-Knight Pearl “gains effect” <= Gagaga Girl]

Effect Monster Abilities

•There are monsters among Effect Monsters that have the abilities “Flip”, “Toon”, “Spirit”, “Union”, or “Gemini” written in them.
[Pictured: Toon Gemini Elf, “Toon Monster”, Rasetsu, “Spirit Monster”, Hydrotortoise, the Empowered Warrior, “Flip Monster”]

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Special Summon Monsters

•In most cases, monsters that say “Cannot be Normal Summoned/Set” are Special Summon monsters. Also, monsters that say “Special Summon” to the right side of their Type are Special Summon monsters.
[TL note: The “Special Summon” descriptor is not available in the TCG at the time this is written.]
•Special Summon Monsters cannot be Normal Summoned/Set and can be Special Summoned by meeting the requirements for the Summon described in that monster.
•Ritual Monsters, Fusion Monsters, Synchro Monsters, and Xyz Monsters are Special Summon Monsters.
•The requirements to Summon a Special Summon Monster are not treated as an effect.
•Among Special Summon Monsters, there are monsters like “Infernoid Devyaty” that can be Special Summoned from the Graveyard by the appropriate procedure. Also, since “Soul Drain Dragon” says “Must be Special Summoned by a Dragon-Type Xyz Monster’s effect in your possession, and cannot be Special Summoned by other ways.” for its appropriate Special Summon procedure, it can also be Special Summoned from the hand, Deck or Graveyard.

[Pictured: Infernoid Devyaty, “can be summoned from the hand or Graveyard”, Soul Drain Dragon, “can be summoned from the hand, Deck or Graveyard by the effect of a Dragon-Type monster”]

Ritual Monsters

•Monsters that have a blue border and say “Ritual” to the right side of their Type are Ritual Monsters.
•The text that says “You can Ritual Summon this card with “[…]”.” specifies the Ritual Spell Card for the Ritual Summon.

[Pictured: Paladin of Photon Dragon, Evigishki Soul Ogre]

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Fusion Monsters

•Monsters that have a purple border and say “Fusion” to the right side of their Type are Fusion Monsters.
•Fusion Monsters are not included in the Main Deck while building it and are included in the Extra Deck instead.
•If a Fusion Monster on the field or Graveyard or a Fusion Monster Card that is banished would be returned to the hand or Deck by a card effect, that monster is returned to the Extra Deck.
•There are Fusion Monsters like “Masked HERO Goka” that do not list Fusion Materials for their Summoning procedure. In that case, those monsters can be Special Summoned by the method written in their Effect Text.

[Pictured: Masked HERO Goka, Gladiator Beast Gyzarus]

Synchro Monsters

•Monsters that have a white border and say “Synchro” to the right side of their Type are Synchro Monsters.
•Synchro Monsters are not included in the Main Deck while building it and are included in the Extra Deck instead.
•There are Tuners among Synchro Monsters.
•If a Synchro Monster on the field or Graveyard or a Synchro Monster Card that is banished would be returned to the hand or Deck by a card effect, that monster is returned to the Extra Deck.
[Pictured: Junk Warrior, Ascension Sky Dragon]

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Xyz Monsters

•Monsters that have a black border and say “Xyz” to the right side of their Type are Xyz Monsters.
•Xyz Monsters are not included in the Main Deck while building it and are included in the Extra Deck instead.
•If an Xyz Monster that is banished, on the field, or in the Graveyard would be returned to the hand or Deck by a card effect, that monster is returned to the Extra Deck instead.

[Pictured: Gachi Gachi Gantetsu, Number 61: Volcasaurus]

Tuners

•Monsters that say “Tuner” to the right side of their Type are Tuners.
•Tuners are monsters that are necessary as Synchro Materials for a Synchro Summon.
•The Ability of being a Tuner is not treated as an effect.
•Tuners that have Monster Effects are Effect Monsters and Tuners that do not have effects written in their Monster Information are Normal Monsters. There are also Synchro Tuner Monsters.

[Pictured: Junk Synchron, Flamvell Guard, Formula Synchron]

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Pendulum Monsters

•Monsters that say “Pendulum” to the right side of their Type are Pendulum Monsters.
[Pictured: Timegazer Magician]
•Pendulum Monsters that have Monster Effects are Effect Monsters, and Pendulum Monsters that do not have Monster Effects written in their Monster Information are Normal Monsters.
•Even if Pendulum Monsters that do not have a Monster Effect have a Pendulum Effect, they are treated as Normal Monsters.
•If a Pendulum Monsters would be sent from the field (Pendulum Zone, Monster Zone, Spell & Trap Zone) to the Graveyard, they are added to the Extra Deck face-up.
•Pendulum Monsters can be added to the Main Deck, be Normal Summoned or Special Summoned like other monsters. Also, Pendulum Monsters can be activated as Spell Cards from the hand by placing them in a Pendulum Zone.
•If Pendulum Monsters are placed in the Pendulum Zone, this is treated as the activation of a Spell Card. If their activation is negated by the effect of a card that negates the activation of Spells, since they are not treated as being sent from the field to the Graveyard, they are sent to the Graveyard like any other card.

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•Pendulum Monsters are only treated as Spell Cards while they exist in a Pendulum Zone, and only their name, Pendulum Scale and Pendulum Effect text is used. Also, the effects it has as an Effect Monster are not applied. When they are outside of the Pendulum Zones and Spell & Trap Zone, they are treated as Monster Cards, and only the Monster Information and effects are applied.
Example: If an effect that says “Any monster sent to the Graveyard is banished instead.” is being applied whne a Pendulum Monster placed in the Pendulum Zone is destroyed, since it exists on the field as a Spell Card, it is not banished and it is added to the Extra Deck.
[Pictured: Stargazer Magician, “treated as a Spell Card”, “not banished and added to the Extra Deck” <= Dimensional Fissure, “only banishes monsters]

•Pendulum Monsters sent from outside the field to the Graveyard are sent to the Graveyard normally.
Example: If at the time you would Normal Summon a Pendulum Monster from the hand that itself is negated by “Solemn Judgment”, the Pendulum Monster that is not treated as being sent from the field to the Graveyard is not added to the Extra Deck, and is sent to the Graveyard.
[Pictured: Timegazer Magician, “to the Graveyard” <= Solemn Judgment, “destroyed outside the field”]

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•If an effect like “Macro Cosmos” is being applied, so that cards that would be sent to the Graveyard are banished, the effect text takes precedence and Pendulum Monsters are not added to the Extra Deck and are banished instead.

Normal and Special Summoning Monsters

•Monsters that are outside of the field can be placed on the field by a Normal or Special Summon.

Normal Summoning/Setting

[TL note: this section is called 通常召喚, which directly translates to “Normal Summon”. However, this term covers Setting as well.]
•During their Main Phase, once the turn player has priority and they do not wish to activate or resolve an effect, the turn player can play a monster from their hand. This act is called a Normal Summon/Set.
•A Normal Summon/Set can only be performed once per turn.
•A Normal Summon/Set from the hand that does not require Tributes cannot be performed if there are not available Monster Zones.
•The player can choose any available Monster Zone in which to place the monster that would be Normal Summoned/Set.
•The monster that would be Normal Summoned/Set must be placed in face-up Attack Position or in face-down Defense Position. Also, the battle position of the monster is decided at the beginning of the performance of the Normal Summon/Set.
•A face-up Normal Summon is called a “Normal Summon”.
Example: While the effect of “Light of Intervention” that says “If a Monster Card would be Set, it must be Normal Summoned in face-up Defense Position.” is being applied, if a monster is Normal Summoned in face-up Defense Position, that Normal Summon is treated as a Normal Summon.
[TL note: as the above note says, this bullet point mentions that a 通常召喚 (lit. “Normal Summon”) in face-up Attack Position is called a 召喚 (lit. “Summon”, but this one is the one used in card texts to mean Normal Summons only). In the “Light of Intervention” example, the ambiguous Normal Summon/Set (通常召喚) in face-up Defense Position is called a Normal Summon (召喚) and not a Set or a Normal Summon/Set. You will find similar ambiguities in the rest of the Normal Summon/Set section]

[Pictured: Light of Intervention, “cannot place face-down” => Chow Chow Chan, “Normal Summoned in face-up Defense Position”]
•If a Normal Summon is performed, a card that “negates the Normal Summon” can be used in response to that Normal Summon. Even if the Normal Summon is negated, in most cases you cannot perform another Normal Summon/Set.

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•A monster that has its Normal Summon/Set negated is sent to the Graveyard providing no particular effect is being applied. In that case, that monster is not treated as being sent from the hand or field to the Graveyard.
•When a monster that does not have its Normal Summon/Set negated is placed on the field, this is called a “successful Normal Summon(/Set)”.
•When an Effect Text says “when it is Normal Summoned”, in most cases it means a face-up Normal Summon/Set.
[TL Note: the above text is actually “when it is Normal Summoned successfully”. However, PSCT has eliminated the “successfully” part for redundance]
•If a Level 5 or higher monster would be Normal Summoned/Set, a number of monsters on the field depending on the Level must be tributed.

Tribute Summon

•A Normal Summon/Set of a Level 5 or higher monster Tributing monsters on the field is called a Tribute Summon.
•Level 5 or 6 monsters can be Normal Summoned/Set by Tributing 1 monster on the field. Level 7 or higher monsters can be Normal Summoned/Set by Tributing 2 monsters on the field.
[Pictured: Dark Magician Girl, “Level 6”, Mobius the Mega Monarch, “Level 8”]

•A Tribute Summon that Tributes 1 or more monsters can be performed by Tributing monsters even if there are no Monster Zones available.
•There are monsters like “Beast King Barbaros” or “Slifer the Sky Dragon” that can be Tribute Summoned by Tributing the amount of monsters written in their texts.

[Pictured: Beast King Barbaros, “can also be tributed using 3 monsters”, Slifer the Sky Dragon, “must tribute 3 monsters to Normal Summon”]

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•If a monster like “Beast King Barbaros” that says “You can Normal Summon/Set this card without Tributing” is Normal Summoned/Set without a Tribute, this is not treated as a Tribute Summon.
•If monsters are Tributed for a Tribute Summon, the Normal Summon of the monster is performed afterwards. For that reason, optional Trigger Effects that read “when it is sent to the Graveyard, you can[…]” that can be activated in that timing cannot be activated during that procedure.

Tributes for a Tribute Summon

•Sending monsters on the field to the Graveyard for a Tribute Summon is called Tributing.
•Face-down monsters on the field can also be Tributed.
•The Tributes are performed at the time the Tribute Summon is declared, before the monster that would be Normal Summoned/Set is placed on the field. Even if the Tribute Summon is negated, the Tributed monsters are sent to the Graveyard normally.
•You can only Tribute monsters you control.
•Monster Tokens on the field can also be Tributed. In this case, the tokens are not sent to the Graveyard and they are removed from the Duel.
•Trap Cards treated as monsters on the field can also be Tributed. In that case, that Tributed Trap Card is sent to the Graveyard, providing no particular effect is being applied.
•If “Mask of Restrict” has been activated, so that monsters cannot be Tributed, a Tribute Summon cannot be performed.
•Even if “Macro Cosmos” or something similar is being applied, so that monsters that would be sent to the Graveyard are banished, monsters can still be Tributed. In that case, the Tributed monsters are not sent to the Graveyard and are banished instead.
[Pictured: Dimensional Fissure, Macro Cosmos]

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Setting Monsters

•Normal Summoning/Setting a monster from the hand in face-down Defense Position is called a Set.
•It is not necessary to reveal the Set monster to the opponent.
•If a Level 5 or higher monster would be Set, monsters are Tributed as usual in order to Set it. At that time, it is not necessary to reveal the Level of the Set monster to the opponent.
•As an exception, if the effect of “Light of Intervention” that says “If a Monster Card would be Set, it must be Normal Summoned in face-up Defense Position” is being applied, a Normal Summon/Set can be performed in face-up Defense Position. This Normal Summon/Set is not treated as a Set.
Example: If the effect of “Dark Simorgh” that says “Your opponent cannot Set any cards on the field.” is being applied, a Set cannot be performed by a Normal Summon/Set. However, providing the effect of “Light of Intervention” is being applied, a Normal Summon/Set can be performed in face-up Defense Position even if the effect of “Dark Simorgh” is being applied.

[Pictured: Dark Simorgh, “cannot set”, Light of Intervention, “Normal Summon in face-up Defense Position”, “it is possible to Normal Summon in face-up Defense Position”]

•There are some cards like “The Shallow Grave” that “Set in face-down Defense Position” while resolving their card effect. In that case, the monsters are treated as being Special Summoned in face-down Defense Position.
•There are some cards like “Elemental HERO Chaos Neos” with effects that “Set” face-up monsters while resolving their card effect. In that case, those face-up monsters are changed to face-down Defense Position, and this is treated as a Set.

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Special Summoning

•Placing a monster on the field by meeting the requirements written in that monster or by the effect of a Spell, Trap or Monster effect is called a Special Summon.
•Aside from Pendulum Summoning, Special Summons can be performed any number of times per turn.
•A Special Summon cannot be performed if there are no available Monster Zones. However, if monsters leave the field in order to meet the requirements for the Special Summon, the procedure or resolution for the Special Summon can be conducted even if there are no available Monster Zones in most cases.
•The player can choose any available Monster Zone in which to place the monster that would be Special Summoned.
•The Monster that would be Special Summoned must be placed in face-up Attack Position or face-up Defense Position unless stated otherwise.
•If the Special Summon is not negated, placing the monster on the field constitutes a “successful Special Summon”.

Special Summoning a monster through requirements

•During their Main Phase, once the turn player has priority and they do not wish to activate or resolve an effect, the turn player can Special Summon a monster by meeting the requirements written in that monster’s Effect Text.
•If a Special Summon is performed by meeting requirements, a card that “negates Special Summons” can be activated in response to that Special Summon.
•A monster that has its Special Summon negated is sent to the Graveyard providing no particular effect is being applied. In that case, the monster that was sent to the Graveyard is not considered to be sent from the hand, field, or Extra Deck to the Graveyard.
•Performing a Special Summon by meeting requirements does not start a chain.
•Cards that are Tributed or sent to the Graveyard in order to meet requirements are moved to a different place for the procedure of the Special Summon and are not treated as being moved by a card effect.

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•If monsters are Tributed or sent to the Graveyard to meet requirements, the Special Summon of the monster is performed afterwards. For that reason, optional Trigger Effects that read “when it is sent to the Graveyard, you can[…]” that can be activated in that timing cannot be activated during that procedure.
Example: When “Gusto Falco” is used as a Material for a Synchro Summon, that “Gusto Falco” is sent to the Graveyard as a Material, but since the Special Summon of the Synchro Monster is performed afterwards, the effect of “Gusto Falco” that says “When this face-up card on the field is sent to the Graveyard, except by battle: You can Special Summon 1 “Gusto” monster from your Deck in face-down Defense Position.” cannot be activated.

[Pictured: Gusto Falco, “cannot activate” “sent to the Graveyard as a Material” <= Daigusto Falcos]

Example: If “Machina Fortress” is Special Summoned by sending “Jinzo – Returner” from the hand to the Graveyard, when the “Jinzo – Returner” is sent to the Graveyard to perform the Special Summon of “Machina Fortress”, its effect that says “you can Special Summon 1 “Jinzo” from your Graveyard” cannot be activated.

[Pictured: Jinzo – Returner, “cannot activate”, “sent to the Graveyard to Special Summon” <= Machina Fortress]

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Special Summoning Special Summon Monsters

•Synchro Monsters, Xyz Monsters, and Special Summon Monsters can be Special Summoned when requirements are met.
•Special Summoning Special Summon monsters by their requirements is not treated as the resolution of an effect. However, in order to properly Special Summon Fusion Monsters and Ritual Monsters, they are treated as being Special Summoned by the resolution of an activated card.
•Special Summon monsters that say “cannot be Special Summoned by other ways” in their Summoning requirements can only be Special Summoned by that method, and cannot be Special Summoned by the effects of other cards.
[TL note: the text used here is “[…]のみ特集召喚できる” (lit. “can only be Special Summoned by…”). This means something different in older TCG texts. The bullet point is using the PSCT equivalent]
•Special Summon monsters cannot be Special Summoned by other card effects unless they are previously Special Summoned by the method described in their texts. However, Fusion, Synchro and Xyz Monsters can be Special Summoned by effects that say “Special Summon from the Extra Deck” in most cases.
•If a monster Special Summoned by the proper procedure that is later added to the Deck, hand, or other private location, that monster is no longer treated as being Special Summoned by the proper procedure.
•Cards with effects that say “ignoring its Summoning conditions” can Special Summon Special Summon monsters from the Deck or hand without Special Summoning them by the proper procedure.
Example: “Horus the Black Flame Dragon LV8” can be Special Summoned from the Deck by the effect of “Level Up!”.

[Pictured: Level Up!, “Special Summoning ignoring summoning conditions!” => Horus the Black Flame Dragon LV8]

•If a Special Summon Monster Special Summoned by the proper procedure is flipped face-down by an effect like “Book of Moon” and afterwards when it would be Flip Summoned that Flip Summon is negated, that monster is not treated as being Special Summoned by the proper procedure and cannot be Special Summoned by the effects of other cards afterwards.

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Ritual Summoning

•When you have the matching Ritual Monster Card in your hand and the necessary Tributes to resolve the effect of the Ritual Spell Card in your hand or field, you can activate the Ritual Spell Card. Activating the Ritual Spell Card starts a chain.
[Pictured: Garlandolf, King of Destruction, “Ritual Monster” <= “Ritual Summoned by an effect”, Ritual of Destruction, “Ritual Spell Card”]

•When resolving the effect of the Ritual Spell Card, monsters in the hand or field whose Levels add up to the Level designated in the Ritual Spell Card or more are Tributed. Afterwards, the Ritual Monster is placed from the hand on the field in face-up Attack or Defense Position. The activated Ritual Spell card is sent to the Graveyard.
•If monsters on the field are Tributed, face-down monsters can also be tributed.
•The Ritual Summon is performed as the resolution of the effect of the Ritual Spell Card. As a result, when a Ritual Spell Card is activated and the resolution is entered, cards cannot be activated until the Ritual Summon is successful.
Example: “Gishki Aquamirror” was activated, during the resolution of that, Effect Monsters were Tributed and afterwards, “Evigishki Tetrogre” was Ritual Summoned. Since the Ritual Summon has already been performed by the time the resolution ends, the opponent cannot activate cards like “Black Horn of Heaven” to negate the Ritual Summon.

[Pictured: Gishki Aquamirror, “activate” <X= Black Horn of Heaven, “cannot negate when an effect is resolving”]

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Tributes of a Ritual

•Tributes for a ritual are sent to the Graveyard as a result of the effect of the Ritual Spell Card. If the activation of the Ritual Spell Card is negated, since the resolution is not performed, the Tributing is not performed either.
•Unless stated otherwise, you can only Tribute monsters in your posssession.
•If the Ritual Spell says “whose total Levels equal […]”, you must Tribute monsters so that the sum of the Level matches that value exactly. Also, if “whose total Levels equal […] or more” is written, the sum does not need to be exactly equal as long as it is equal or more.
•The number of Tributed monsters cannot be higher than necessary.
Example: If “Ritual of Destruction” is activated and its effect that says “You must also Tribute monsters whose total Levels equal 7 or more” resolves, you cannot Tribute a Level 7 and a Level 2 monster, as the Levels already add up to 7 or more with only 1 monster. You can Tribute a Level 5 and a Level 4 monster.

[Pictured: Ritual of Destruction]
•Monster Tokens on the field can also be Tributed. In that case, Tokens that would be sent to the Graveyard are removed from the Duel.
•Trap Cards treated as monsters on the field can also be tributed. In that case, the Tributed Trap Cards are sent to the Graveyard.
•If a card like “Mask of Restrict” is activated so that Tributes cannot be performed, Ritual Spell Cards cannot be activated.
•The Tributes for the Ritual Summon are Tributed by an effect, but afterwards the Ritual Summon is performed. For that reason, optional Trigger Effects that read “when it is sent to the Graveyard, you can[…]” that can be activated in that timing cannot be activated during that procedure.

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Fusion Summoning

•When you have the monsters in your field or hand written to meet the requirements of a Fusion Monster Card in your Extra Deck, you can activate “Polymerization” or other cards that perform a Fusion Summon. Activating a card that performs a Fusion Summon starts a chain.
[Pictured: Gem-Knight Topaz, “Fusion Monster”, “Fusion Summoned by an effect” <= Gem-Knight Fusion, “card that performs a Fusion Summon”]
•A card that performs a Fusion Summon is an Effect Monster, Spell or Trap Card that has an effect that performs a Fusion Summon, including “Polymerization”.
•Monsters that become Fusion Materials are sent to the Graveyard by the resolution of the card that performs the Fusion Summon. Afterwards, the Fusion Monster whose conditions are met by the monsters sent to the Graveyard is placed on the field from the Extra Deck in face-up Attack Position or face-up Defense Position.
•The activated card that performs a Fusion Summon is sent to the Graveyard in most cases.
•If you use monsters on your side of the field as Fusion Materials, you can also use face-down monsters.
•There are cases in which the card that performs a Fusion Summon uses monsters in locations outside the hand or field as Fusion Materials.
•The Fusion Summon is performed as the resolution of the effect of the card that performs a Fusion Summon. As a result, when that card is activated and the resolution is entered, cards cannot be activated until the Fusion Summon Summon is successful.
Example: “Polymerization” was activated, Fusion Materials are sent to the Graveyard during the resolution of that effect and then the Fusion Monster is Fusion Summoned. Since the Fusion Summon has already been performed by the time the resolution ends, the opponent cannot activate cards like “Black Horn of Heaven” that negate the Fusion Summon.

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•Fusion Monsters that say “you do not use Polymerization” in their Effect Text cannot be Fusion Summoned by cards that perform a Fusion Summon.
•Cards like “Dragonecro Nethersoul Dragon” that say “Must first be Fusion Summoned.” mean that they can only be Special Summoned from the Extra Deck by a Fusion Summon, and providing they have been Special Summoned properly, they can be Special Summoned by other card effects from the Graveyard.
[TL note: This clause in Japanese is “このカードは融合召喚でのみエクストラデッキから特集召喚する事ができる” (lit. “this card can be Special Summoned from the Extra Deck only by a Fusion Summon”). This is the PSCT equivalent]

[Pictured: Dragonecro Nethersoul Dragon, “can be Special Summoned by Monster Reborn”, Cyber Twin Dragon, “cannot use cards that are used instead of a material”] •Cards like “Cyber Twin Dragon” that say “A Fusion Summon of this card can only be done with the above Fusion Material Monsters.” mean that if they are Fusion Summoned using a card that performs a Fusion Summon, you must use the appropriate materials listed in the text. Cards like “Goddess with the Third Eye” that have an effect that says “You can substitute this card for any 1 Fusion Material Monster” cannot be used as a Material.

Fusion Materials

•The monsters sent to the Graveyard for a Fusion Summon during the resolution of the card that performs a Fusion Summon are Fusion Materials.
•Fusion Materials are sent to the Graveyard during the resolution of the effect of the card that performs a Fusion Summon. If the activation of that card is negated, since that card does not resolve afterwards, the Fusion Materials are not sent to the Graveyard.
•Unless stated otherwise, the monsters that can be Fusion Materials are only monsters in your possession.
•Even if an effect like “Macro Cosmos” is being applied, so that monsters that are sent to the Graveyard are banished, a card that performs a Fusion Summon can be activated and Fusion Summon. In that case, the monsters used as Materials are not sent to the Graveyard and are banished instead.

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•Token Monsters on the field can also be used as Fusion Materials. In that case, the Tokens are not sent to the Graveyard and they are removed from the Duel.
•Trap Cards treated as monsters on the field can also be used as Fusion Materials. In that case, the Trap Cards used as Materials are sent to the Graveyard.
•The Fusion Materials for the Fusion Summon are sent to the Graveyard by an effect, but afterwards the Fusion Summon is performed. For that reason, optional Trigger Effects that read “when it is sent to the Graveyard, you can[…]” that can be activated in that timing cannot be activated during that procedure.
•Fusion Materials that are Special Summoned to the field or are otherwose moved to a different location temporarily are no longer treated as Fusion Materials.
Example: If an “Elemental HERO Bubbleman” sent to the Graveyard as a Fusion Material is Special Summoned by “Monster Reborn” or something similar, and later it is destroyed and sent to the Graveyard again, it cannot be Special Summoned by “De-Fusion”.
•If a Fusion Monster is destroyed or is otherwise moved to a different location, the Fusion Materials that were used for that monster are not treated as being Fusion Materials for that monster. However, effects that temporarily banish the monster like “Interdimensional Matter Transporter” are an exception.

Special Summoning Fusion Monsters that do not require Polymerization

•There are particular Fusion Monsters that say “(You do not use “Polymerization”.)” that can be Special Summoned by the method they list.
•Since no card is activated, this does not start a chain. Also, Special Summoning by this method is not treated as a Fusion Summon.
•Special Summoning without using “Polymerization” and Special Summoning Fusion Monsters by meeting requirements are not Special Summons as a result of the resolution of an effect. As a result, those Special Summons can be negated by cards like “Solemn Judgment”.
•Face-down monsters on the field can also be used for this Special Summon, like for a normal Fusion Summon.

[Pictured: Gladiator Beast Essedarii, Elemental HERO Storm Neos, XYZ-Dragon Cannon]

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Synchro Summoning

•When you have a face-up Tuner and 1 or more other monsters whose Levels equal the Level of a Synchro Monster in the Extra Deck, you can declare you are performing a Synchro Summon.

[Pictured: Star Eater, “Synchro Monster, Mecha Phantom Beast O-Lion, “Tuner”]
•A face-up Tuner and other monsters whose Levels equal the Level of the Synchro Monster that would be Synchro Summoned are sent to the Graveyard as Synchro Materials. Afterwards, the Synchro Monster is placed on the field in face-up Attack Position or face-up Defense Position.
•If the non-Tuner monsters need to meet certain requirements, all non-Tuner materials must meet those requirements.
Example: For the materials of an “Avenging Knight Parshath” that says “1 Tuner + 1 or more non-Tuner LIGHT monsters”, all non-Tuner monsters must be LIGHT monsters.
[Pictured: Avenging Knight Parshath, Cyber Dragon Core and Vivid Knight, “all must be LIGHT monsters”, Mecha Phantom Beast O-Lion, “the Tuner can be of any Attribute”]

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Synchro Materials

•Monsters sent to the Graveyard for a Synchro Summon are Synchro Materials.
•Synchro Materials are sent to the Graveyard before the Synchro Monster is placed on the field. Even if the Synchro Summon is negated, the monsters that became Synchro Materials are still sent to the Graveyard. However, in that case, those monsters are not treated as Synchro Materials.
•Even if an effect like “Macro Cosmos” is being applied, so that monsters sent to the Graveyard are banished, you can still Synchro Summon. In that case, the monsters used as Materials are not sent to the Graveyard and are banished instead.
•Token Monsters can also be used as Synchro Materials. In that case, the Token Monsters are not sent to the Graveyard and are removed from the Duel.
•Trap Cards treated as monsters on the field can also be used as Synchro Materials. In that case, the Trap Cards used as Materials are sent to the Graveyard.
•If Synchro Materials are Special Summoned to the field or are otherwise temporarily moved to a different location, they are no longer treated as Synchro Materials.
•If a Synchro Monster is destroyed or is otherwise moved to a different location, the Synchro Materials that were used for that monster are not treated as being Synchro Materials for that monster. However, effects that temporarily banish the monster like “Interdimensional Matter Transporter” are an exception.
Example: If a “Junk Warrior” that used “Junk Synchron” as a Material is destroyed by battle, then is Special Summoned again by “Monster Reborn”, “Junk Synchron” cannot be Special Summoned by “De-Synchro”.

[Pictured: Junk Warrior, “destroyed and then Special Summoned”, Junk Synchron <X= De-Synchro, ” cannot Special Summon”]

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Xyz Summoning

•If you have 2 or more face-up monsters on the field with the same Level, and an Xyz Monster in the Extra Deck whose Rank is of the same value as the Level of those monsters, you can declare you are perfomring an Xyz Summon.
•Pile up a number of face-up monsters on the field, that have a Level equal to the value of the Rank of the monster that would be Xyz Summoned, as Xyz Materials according to what is listed on the Xyz Monster that would be Xyz Summoned, vertically. Then, place the Xyz Monster from the Extra Deck on top of those monsters in face-up Attack Position or face-up Defense Position.
[TL note: The sentence is probably very long and confusing in English. This basically means take face-up monsters of the same Level and an Xyz with a Rank that is of the same value. Pile the monsters up vertically, then put the Xyz on top of them.]
[Pictured: Number 55: Gogogo Goliath, “Xyz Monster”, with 2 monsters piled vertically under it, “Xyz Materials”]

•There are Xyz Monsters that can be Xyz Summoned by placing them on top of 1 monster on the field. In that case, the Xyz Materials written in that monster are not necessary. Also, a Monster Zone can be chosen at that time like you would for a regular Xyz Summon. Xyz Summoning by this method is also treated as a proper Xyz Summon.
[Pictured: Gaia Dragon, the Thunder Charger, Constellar Ptolemy M7]

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Xyz Materials

•The cards placed under Xyz Monsters are Xyz Materials.
•Monsters that become Xyz Materials are not treated as cards on the field.
•Xyz Materials are piled up before the Xyz Monster is placed on the field. If the Xyz Summon is negated, the monsters that became Xyz Materials are sent to the Graveyard. Also, in that case, they are not treated as being sent from the field to the Graveyard.
•If an Xyz Monster piled over Xyz Materials leaves the field, the Xyz Materials are sent to the Graveyard.
•If Xyz Materials are sent to the Graveyard, they are not treated as being sent from the field to the Graveyard.
Example: If a “Plaguespreader Zombie” Special Summoned by its own effect becomes an Xyz Material and is later sent to the Graveyard, since it is not treated as a card being sent from the field, the clause that says “banish it when it leaves the field” is not applied.
[Pictured: Plaguspreader Zombie, Quillbolt Hedgehog, “sent to the Graveyard as Xyz Materials and not banished”]
•Xyz Materials cannot be targeted for effects.
•Monster Tokens cannot be used as Xyz Materials.
•Trap Cards treated as monsters on the field can also be used as Xyz Materials.

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Pendulum Summoning

•When you have Pendulum Monsters placed in the Pendulum Zones on the left and right sides of the field, you can declare you are performing a Pendulum Summon.
•Monsters whose Levels are between the Pendulum Scales written in the Pendulum Monsters are placed on the field in face-up Attack Position or face-down Defense Position. The Levels between the scales are the Levels higher than the lower Pendulum Scale and lower than the higher Pendulum Scale of the Pendulum Monsters placed on the left and right sides of the field.
[Pictured: Stargazer Magician, “Pendulum Scale 1”, <= “Monsters of Levels to 2-7 can be Pendulum Summoned” = > Timegazer Magician, “Pendulum Scale 8]
•The monsters that can be placed on the field by a Pendulum Summon are monsters in the hand and Pendulum Monsters that are face-up in the Extra Deck. You can also Special Summon from both the hand and Extra Deck.
•The number of monsters to be Special Summoned by a Pendulum Summon can be chosen arbitrarily by the player who will Special Summon.
•Pendulum Summons can only be performed once per turn.
•If the Pendulum Summon is negated, all monsters that would have been Special Summoned are sent to the Graveyard. In that case, they are not treated as being sent from the hand, field, or Extra Deck to the Graveyard.
•A Pendulum Summon is a method that Special Summons any number of monsters in a single timing.
Example: When multiple monsters are Pendulum Summoned, the effect of “Thunder King Rai-Oh” that says “when your opponent would Special Summon exactly 1 monster: You can send this face-up card to the Graveyard; negate the Special Summon, and if you do, destroy it.” cannot be activated. Providing 1 monster is Pendulum Summoned, the Pendulum Summon can be negated by activating the effect of “Thunder King Rai-Oh”.
Example: When a Level 4, Level 6, and Level 7 monster would be Pendulum Summoned at the same time, if the effect of “Steelswarm Roach” is activated, only the Special Summon of the Level 6 and 7 monsters is negated.

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Special Summoning by an activated card effect

•Monsters can be Special Summoned by the resolution of the effect of an activated Spell, Trap or Monster Effect.
•When a Special Summon is performed as a result of the resolution of an activated effect that started a chain, if the activation of the activated effect that started a chain is not negated, the resolution that performs the Special Summon cannot be negated.
Example: After the effect of “Mermail Abyssmegalo” that says “You can discard 2 other WATER monsters to the Graveyard; Special Summon this card from your hand.” was activated, cards like “Solemn Judgment” cannot be activated to negate the Special Summon when the effect is resolving. Afterwards, cards that respond to when a Special Summon is successful can be activated when the Special Summon is successful.

[Pictured: Mermail Abyssmegalo <X= Solemn Judgment “cannot negate when the effect is resolving”]
•Monsters that have effects to Special Summon themselves that activate are mostly written as “:/; Special Summon this card from your […]”. Also, those effects are Ignition Effects or Trigger Effects in most cases.
[TL Note: the effects in the OCG are worded as “…you can activate. Special Summon this card (from […])”. This is the PSCT equivalent]
•Effects of Spells, Traps and Monsters that Special Summon other cards are effects that activate and start a chain in most cases.

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Flip Summoning

•During their Main Phase, once the turn player has priority and they do not wish to activate or resolve an effect, the turn player can change a face-down Defense Position monster to face-up Attack Position. This is called a Flip Summon.
•If a Flip Summon is performed, effects that negate Flip Summons can be used in response to that Flip Summon.
•Any number of Flip Summons can be performed per turn, but a single monster can only be Flip Summoned once per turn.
•A monster Set by a Normal Summon/Set cannot be Flip Summoned during the same turn.
•A monster Special Summoned in face-down Defense Position by a card effect cannot be Flip Summoned during the same turn.
•A monster that performed an attack or that had its battle position changed and that flipped face-down by “Book of Moon” or similar cannot be Flip Summoned during that turn.
•A Flip Summoned monster is treated as being flipped face-up.

[Pictured: Ryko, Lightsworn Hunter, “flipped face-up” <= face-down Defense Position monster “flipped face-up by a Flip Summon”]

Flipping face-up

•When a face-down monster is changed to be face-up, that monster is treated as being flipped face-up.
•When a face-down monster is attacked, and that monster is flipped face-up during the Damage Step before damage calculation, this is also treated as flipping the monster face-up.
•Effects that activate “when it is Flip Summoned successfully” do not activate if the monster is flipped face-up by battle or card effects.

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Battle positions of monsters

•Cards in the Monster Zones are placed on the field in either face-up Attack Position, face-up Defense Position, or face-down Defense Position.
•Unless stated otherwise, if an effect that says “change the battle position” is applied, the battle position is changed to one of the following battle positions:
-Face-up Attack Position => Face-up Defense Position
-Face-up Defense Position => Face-up Attack Position
-Face-down Defense Position => Face-up Attack Position

Face-up Attack Position

•Monster Cards placed in a Monster Zone vertically and face-up are in face-up Attack Position.
•Monsters in face-up Attack Position can perform attack declarations during the Battle Step of the Battle Phase.
•If a face-up Attack Position monster battles, the ATK value of that monster is used to perform damage calculation.

Face-up Defense Position

•Monster Cards placed in a Monster Zone horizontally and face-up are in face-up Defense Position.
•Face-up Defense Position monsters cannot perform attack declarations except in special occasions.
•If a face-up Defense Position monster battles, the DEF value of that monster is used to perform damage calculation.

[Pictured: Terratiger, the Empowered Warrior placed vertically, “look at the ATK”, Green Turtle Summoner placed horizontally, “look at the DEF”]

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Face-down Defense Position

•Monsters placed on the field in a Monster Zone horizontally and face-down are in face-down Defense Position.
•The Monster Information of face-down Monsters like their card name/Level/Attribute/Type/Monster Type/Effect Text/etc. is private to the opponent. The controller of those cards can always verify face-down monsters.
•Face-down monsters are not affected by effects that change the card name, Type, Attribute, or ATK/DEF of monsters on the field.
•Face-down monsters cannot perform attack declarations.
•If a face-down Defense Position monster battles, it is changed to face-up Defense Position before damage calculation and the DEF value of that monster is used to perform damage calculation.
•If a monster that needs to meet particular requirements must be sent to the Graveyard/returned to the hand/returned to the Deck/etc. in order to activate or resolve an effect like “send 1 […]-Type monster to the Graveyard;”, face-down monsters cannot be chosen as it is not possible for both players to verify that those conditions are met. However, if monsters that need to meet particular requirements must be Tributed for a Tribute Summon or to activate/resolve an effect, the controller of those face-down monsters can Tribute them.
Example: A face-down Plant-Type monster cannot be sent to the Graveyard as a cost to activate the effect of “Orea, the Sylvan High Arbiter” that says “You can send 1 Plant-Type monster from your hand or face-up from your side of the field to the Graveyard;“. However, a face-down monster can be Tributed as a cost to activate the effect of “Pollinosis” that says “Tribute 1 Plant-Type monster;“.

[Pictured: Orea, the Sylvan High Arbiter “cannot send to the Graveyard” =X> a face-down Defense Position monster <= Pollinosis, “can Tribute”]

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•Face-down monsters cannot be affected by the effects of cards that must target a monster that meets particular requirements like “target 1 […]-Type monster”.
Example: A face-down “Bujin Yamato” cannot be targeted to activate the effect of “Bujingi Hare” that says “You can banish this card from your Graveyard, then target 1 Beast-Warrior-Type “Bujin” monster you control;“.
[Pictured: A face-down Defense Position monster “cannot target” <X= Bujingi Hare => “can target” Bujin Yamato]

Changing the battle positions of monsters

•During their Main Phase, once the turn player has priority and they do not wish to activate or resolve an effect, the turn player can choose to change the battle position of a monster on the field.
•You can change the battle positions of monsters any number of times per turn, but a single monster can only have its battle position changed once per turn. However, the number of times the battle position is changed by a card effect is not counted.
•A monster that performed an attack declaration cannot have its battle position changed during that turn.
•The battle position of a monster is changed to one of the following battle positions depending on its previous battle position.
-Face-up Attack Position => Face-up Defense Position
-Face-up Defense Posiiton => Face-up Attack Position
-Face-down Defense Posiiton => Face-up Attack Position (Flip Summon)

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Monster Token

•The monsters created by effects that say “Special Summon […] Tokens” are Monster Tokens.
[Pictured: Scapegoat]
•If Monster Tokens leave the field, they do not go to the Graveyard and are removed from the Duel.
•Monster Tokens cannot be in face-down Defense Position.
•Monster Tokens cannot be sent to the Graveyard to activate effects.
•Monster Tokens can be used as Synchro Materials. In that case, they are not sent to the Graveyard and are removed from the Duel.
•Monster Tokens cannot be used as Xyz Materials.
•Monster Tokens on the field are treated as Normal Monsters. If the activation or resolution of some effect is related to the Monster Token, those effects belong to the effect of the card that Special Summoned the Monster Token.
Example: If a “Horseytail Token” Summoned by the effect of “Horseytail” is destroyed in battle by a Plant-Type monster, the effect that says “When this Token is destroyed by battle with a Plant-Type monster, its controller sends 1 card from their hand to the Graveyard.” is not applied as the effect of the “Horseytail Token”, but as applying part of the effect of “Horseytail”.

[Pictured: Horseytail, “The effects of Tokens are treated as the effects of cards that Special Summoned the Tokens”]

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Monster Effects

•The effects of Effect Monsters are divided into 4 types, according to the timing in which the effect is activated or applied. There are also effects that do not belong to any of the 4 types.

Continuous Effects

•The effects of monsters that are applied and keep applying as long as that monster is face-up in a Monster Zone are Continuous Effects. There are also Continuous Effects that have necessary conditions to be applied.
•Continuous Effects do not activate or start a chain. They are applied the moment the monster is face-up. Even if the monster appears face-up in the middle of the resolution of an effect, the effect is applied at that moment.
Example: Since the Continuous Effect of “Spined Gillman” that says “All Fish, Sea Serpent, and Aqua-Type monsters you control gain 400 ATK.” is applied immediately, the ATK of “Spined Gillman” is 1700 when it is successfully Normal Summoned. As a result, a “Bottomless Trap Hole” that says “When your opponent Summons a monster(s) with 1500 or more ATK:” can be activated when the Normal Summon of “Spined Gillman” is successful.

[Pictured: Spined Gillman, “already has 1700 ATK”, <= Bottomless Trap Hole “can be activated]

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•If that monster stops being face-up, leaves the field, or is determined to be destroyed, the effect stops being applied immediately. Even if the monster stops being face-up during the resolution of an effect, the effect stops applying at that moment.
Example: If you control a “Destiny HERO – Plasma” and the opponent controls a “Banisher of the Radiance”, if “Destiny HERO – Plasma” is destroyed, since its Continuous Effect that says “Negate the effects of all face-up monsters your opponent controls.” stops applying immediately, the Continuous Effect of “Banisher of the Radiance” that says “Any card sent to the Graveyard is banished instead.” is applied and “Destiny HERO – Plasma” is banished. If “Destiny HERO – Plasma” and “Banisher of the Radiance” are destroyed simultaneously by “Dark Hole” or something similar, since neither effect is applied, they are not banished and are sent to the Graveyard after being destroyed.
[Pictured: Destiny HERO – Plasma, Banisher of the Radiance, “the effects stop applying immediatly when destroyed”]
•If that monster is destroyed by battle, the effect stops applying when that monster is determined to be destroyed during damage calculation.

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Ignition Effects

•Effects that can be declared to activate during the Main Phase, once the turn player has priority and they do not wish to activate or resolve an effect, are Ignition Effects.
•Ignition Effects start a chain when they activate.
•There are also Ignition Effects that activate outside of the field, like in the Graveyard or hand.
•Ignition Effects have a Spell Speed of 1.
•If an Ignition Effect is activated, and the monster that activated the effect leaves the field or is otherwise moved to a different location, the effect resolves afterwards. However, if something like “This card must be face-up on the field to activate and to resolve this effect.” is written, so that this condition must be met at the time of the activation and at the time of the resolution, the effect is not applied.
[TL note: This clause is フィールド上に存在する限り (lit. “as long as it remains face-up on the field]). This is the PSCT equivalent]

[Pictured: Zombie Master, “activate” <= "if it leaves the field the effect does not resolve"]

Trigger Effect

•Effects that are activated in a particular written timing are Trigger Effects.
•Trigger Effects start a chain when they activate.
•Trigger Effects have a Spell Speed of 1. However, if multiple Trigger Effects activate at the same timing, they form a chain.

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•If, at the time of the particular timing, the card has been moved to a private location like the Deck or hand, the Trigger Effect does not activate.
Example: If “Monster Reincarnation” is activated discarding “Dandylion” for the cost, and “Dandylion” is returned to the hand by the effect of that “Monster Reincarnation” that says “add it to your hand.“, the effect of “Dandylion” that activates “If this card is sent to the Graveyard:” does not activate.
[Pictured: Dandylion, “cannot activate” “discarded as a cost and retrieved” <= Monster Reincarnation]
•Since multiple effects that activate during a particular phase like the Standby Phase or End Phase are not treated as activating simultaneously, after activating and resolving 1 effect, other Trigger Effects can be activated and resolved.
•In most cases, Trigger Effects do not activate if they meet their timing during the Damage Step. However, Trigger Effects that: activate mandatorily; activate when the monster itself is Special Summoned successfully; effects that activate when the monster is flipped face-up; and effects that activate when the monster is destroyed, banished, or added to the hand, can be activated.
•Trigger Effects that activate when the monster is flipped face-up activate in most cases when that monster is changed from being face-down to face-up on the field. When monsters with Trigger Effects that activate when the monster is flipped face-up are attacked and flipped face-up, the effects activate during the timing of “after damage calculation” of that battle.
•If a Trigger Effect is activated, and the monster that activated the effect leaves the field or is otherwise moved to a different location, the effect resolves afterwards. However, if something like “This card must be face-up on the field to activate and to resolve this effect.” is written, so that this condition must be met at the time of the activation and at the time of the resolution, the effect is not applied.

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•If you have multiple monsters in your hand with Trigger Effects to Special Summon themselves (that activate in the hand in a particular timing), their effects cannot be activated in a chain and only 1 of them can be activated.
Example: When you take battle damage while you have 2 copies of “Gorz the Emissary of Darkness”, only the effect of 1 copy of “Gorz the Emissary of Darkness” that says “When you take damage from a card in your opponent’s possession:” can be activated.
[Pictured: 2 copies of Gorz the Emissary of Darkness, “the effect of only 1 of them can be activated”]

Effects that activate if flipped face-up

•There are Trigger Effects of Flip monsters that activate if that monster is changed from being face-down to being face-up.
•There are also Flip monsters that have effects that activate or apply aside from when they are flipped face-up.

[Pictured: Alien Grey, “Flip monster”, “has a Trigger Effect that activates when sent to the Graveyard]

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Quick Effects

•Effects that can be activated when you have priority during the opponent’s turn, providing a particular timing, are Quick Effects.
•Quick Effects start a chain when they activate.
•Quick Effects have a Spell Speed of 2. They can also be activated in a chain to the activation of cards or effects.
•Quick Effects are classified in the following groups in most cases.
-Effects that say “can also be activated during the opponent’s turn”, which can be activated arbitrarily during the opponent’s turn.
-Effects that negate the activations of cards or effects.

[Pictured: Effect Veiler, Stardust Dragon]

•If a Quick Effect is activated, and the monster that activated the effect leaves the field or is otherwise moved to a different location, the effect resolves afterwards.
•In most cases, Quick Effects cannot be activated during the Damage Step. However, effects that negate the activations of cards or effects, or that increase or decrease the ATK/DEF of monsters, can be activated. Effects that increase or decrease the ATK/DEF of monsters can be activated only before damage calculation.

[Pictured: Naturia Beast, “negates activations”, Honest, “Increases ATK”]

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Other Effects

•Effects that do not belong to the Continuous Effect, Ignition Effect, Trigger Effect or Quick Effect categories are effects that do not belong to any category.
•Those other effects are Monster Effects. As a result, if they are applied on the field they are negated by “Skill Drain” in most cases.
•Those other effects do not activate or start a chain. They are applied as conditions are met. Even if the conditions are met in the middle of the resolution of an effect, the effect is applied at that moment.
•The following effects are some examples of those other effects.
-Effects of monsters that are not Special Summon Monsters that Special Summon themselves from the hand or Graveyard without activating.
-Monster Effects that keep applying while that monster is in the Graveyard or while they are face-down.
[Pictured: Cyber Dragon, Harpie Dancer]
-Effects that say “If this card would leave the field, banish it instead“.
-Effects that say “if this card is Summoned this way, its original ATK becomes […]”.
[Pictured: Dark Magician of Chaos, Dododo Warrior]

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-Effects that say “If this face-up card is destroyed while it is in a Monster Card Zone, you can place it face-up in your Spell & Trap Card Zone as a Continuous Spell Card, instead of sending it to the Graveyard.“.
-Effects that say “You can Set this card from your hand to your Spell & Trap Zone as a Spell Card.“.

[Pictured: Crystal Beast Ruby Carbuncle, Artifact Beagalltach]
-Effects that say “You can only control 1 “[…]“.
-Effects that say “You can substitute this card for any 1 Fusion Material Monster“.
-Effects that say “An Xyz Monster that was Summoned using […] as Xyz Material gains this effect.“.

[Pictured: Bujin Yamato, The Earth – Hex Sealed Fusion, Gagaga Girl]

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3.3 Spells

Activating Spell Cards

•Spell Cards other than Quick-Play Spell Cards can be activated by the turn player during their Main Phase, once the turn player has priority and they do not wish to activate or resolve an effect by placing them face-up.
•If a Spell Card is activated from the hand, it is placed face-up in 1 of the Spell & Trap Zones, with the exception of Field Spell Cards.
•If a set Spell Card is activated, it is changed from being face-down in a Spell & Trap Zone or Field Zone to being face-up.
•If there are no available zones in which to activate the Spell Card, it cannot be activated from the hand, with the exception of Field Spell Cards.
•Activating Spell Cards starts a chain. Spell Cards have a Spell Speed of 1, with the exception of Quick-Play Spell Cards.
•If a Spell Card is activated, the opponent can activate cards that negate the activation of Spell Cards, in a chain to that activation.
•Spell Cards that have their activations negated are sent to the Graveyard providing no particular effect is being applied. In that case, the Spell Card sent to the Graveyard is not treated as being sent from the hand or field to the Graveyard. The same applies if a set Field Spell Card has its activation negated.
•Activated Spells are treated as being face-up on the field.
•After resolving the effects of Spell Cards, they are sent to the Graveyard, with the exception of Continuous, Equip and Field Spells, as well as some Normal Spell Cards like “Swords of Revealing Light”.

[Pictured: Swords of Revealing Light, “Normal Spell that remains on the field after activation”]

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Setting Spell Cards

•During their Main Phase, once the turn player has priority and they do not wish to activate or resolve an effect, the turn player can place Spell Cards from the hand face-down.
•Placing a card face-down from the hand is called Setting.
•If there are no available Zones in which to place the Spell Card, they cannot be Set, with the exception of Field Spells.
•Set Spell Cards can be activated even during that turn, with the exception of Quick-Play Spell Cards.
•The information of face-down Spell Cards, including whether they are a Spell Card or a Trap Card or not, is private to the opponent. However, face-down Field Spell Cards in the Field Zone are treated as Field Spell Cards. The controller of face-down Spell or Traps can always verify them.

Types of Spell Cards

•The type of Spell Card depends on their activation timing and how they resolve after being activated.

Normal Spell Cards

•Spell Cards that do not have an Effect Icon are Normal Spell Cards.
[Pictured: Diamond Core of Koa’ki Meiru, Different Dimension Capsule]
•Aside from some exceptions, after being activated and applying their effects, they are sent to the Graveyard. The exceptions include “Swords of Revealing Light”, “Different Dimension Capsule”, “Big Evolution Pill”, etc. Those Spell Cards remain on the field as long as indicated on the card.

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Ritual Spells

•Spell Cards with the ritual Effect Icon are Ritual Spell Cards.
[Pictured: Dawn of the Herald, Forbidden Arts of the Gishki]
•These are Spell Cards necessary to perform a Ritual Summon.
•After a Ritual Spell Card is activated and its effect resolves, it is sent to the Graveyard.

Continuous Spell Cards

•Spell Cards with the continuous Effect Icon are Continuous Spell Cards.
[Pictured: Gateway of the Six, Machine Assembly Line]
•After a Continuous Spell is activated, it remains in that Spell & Trap Zone.
•Unless stated otherwise, Continuous Spells keep exerting their effects as long as they remain face-up in a Spell & Trap Zone.
•There are Continuous Spell Cards that have effects that can activate under certain conditions after their activation. In that case, this is treated as activating an effect and not as activating a Spell Card.
Example: If the effect of an already active “Gateway of the Six” that says “● 4 Counters: Add 1 “Six Samurai” monster from your Deck or Graveyard to your hand.” is activated, the activation of that effect cannot be negated by “Magic Jammer” that says “negate the activation, and if you do, destroy it.“.

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•The activated effects of Continuous Spell Cards are of Spell Speed 1. As a result, they cannot be activated in a chain to the activation of cards or effects.
•The effects of Continuous Spell Cards are invalidated immediately when they leave the field. Also, if a Continuous Spell Card that has already been activated activates an effect, and that Continuous Spell Card is destroyed by a card effect activated in a chain, the effect of the Continuous Spell Card does not resolve.

Equip Spells

•Spell Cards with the equip Effect Icon are Equip Spell Cards.
[Pictured: Magnum Shield, Noble Arms – Arfeudutyr]
•After an Equip Spell is activated, it remains in the Spell & Trap Zone.
•Equip Spells are activated by targeting the monster that they will equip. That targeted monster can be a face-up monster on the field/ a monster in the Graveyard/ a banished monster depending on the Equip Spell Card.
•A monster equipped with an Equip Spell is called the equipped monster for that Equip Spell.
•Equip Spells can also be equipped to the opponent’s monsters unless it is stated that they can be equipped to your or the opponent’s monsters.
•In most cases, a single monster can be equipped with many Equip Spells.
•If the activation of an Equip Spell is negated, it is not equipped, but if it has its effects negated, its effects are negated but it remains equipped.
•If the equipped monster leaves the field or is flipped face-down, the equipped Equip Spells are destroyed and sent to the Graveyard. Also, if the equipped monster no longer meets the requirements to be equipped by those Equip Spells, those Equip Spells are destroyed and sent to the Graveyard. In either case, the Equip Spells are not treated as being destroyed by a card effect.

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•After being equipped, if the card name or Type of the equipped monster changes so that the conditions for it to be equipped are no longer met, that Equip Card is destroyed.
Example: If a Warrior-Type monster equipped with “Magnum Shield”, which says “Equip only to a Warrior-Type monster“, has its Type become Spellcaster-Type by the effect of “DNA Surgery” that says “All face-up monsters on the field become that Type.“, “Magnum Shield” is destroyed.
•There are Equip Spells that have effects that can activate under certain conditions after their activation. In that case, this is treated as activating an effect and not as activating a Spell Card.
•The effects of Equip Spell Cards that activate have a Spell Speed of 1.
•The effects of Equip Spells, other than their effects that activate in the Graveyard, stop applying immediately when they leave the field. Also, if an Equip Spell that has already been activated activates its effect, and that Equip Spell is destroyed by a card effect activated in a chain, the effect of the Equip Spell does not resolve.

Field Spells

•Spell Cards with the field Effect Icon are Field Spells.
[Pictured: Ghostrick Mansion, Scrap Factory]
•If a Field Spell is activated, it is placed in the Field Zone.
•If there already is a Field Spell in your Field Zone, you can activate or Set a new Field Spell in the Field Zone by sending that card to the Graveyard. In that case, the card sent to the Graveyard is not destroyed and it is not treated as being sent to the Graveyard by a card effect.
•After activating a Field Spell, it remains in the Field Zone.

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•Unless stated otherwise, Field Spells keep exerting their effects as long as they remain face-up in the Field Zone.
•There are Field Spells that have effects that can activate under certain conditions after their activation. In that case, this is treated as activating an effect and not as activating a Spell Card.
•In most cases, the effects of Field Spells that activate are of Spell Speed 1. As a result, they cannot be activated in a chain to the activation of a card or effect.
•The effects of Field Spells that apply on the field stop applying immediately when they leave the field. Also, if a Field Spell that has already been activated activates an effect, and that Field Spell is destroyed by a card effect activated in a chain, the effect of the Field Spell does not resolve.

Quick-Play Spells

•Spell Cards with the quick-play Effect Icon are Quick-Play Spell Cards.
[Pictured: Artifact Ignition, Forbidden Lance]
•Quick-Play Spells are of Spell Speed 2. As a result, they can also be activated in a chain to the activations of cards or effects, except Counter Trap Cards.
•Effects that activate in the Graveyard like “Indomitable Gladiator Beast”, or the effect of “Artifact Ignition” that activates when it is destroyed, are of Spell Speed 1.
•Quick-Play Spells in your hand can be activated when you have priority during your turn.
•Set Quick-Play Spells on the field can be activated during either player’s turn when that player has priority.
•Quick-Play Spells cannot be activated during the turn in which they are Set.
•After activating a Quick-Play Spell and applying its effect, it is sent to the Graveyard.

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Pendulum Monsters treated as Spell Cards

•Pendulum Monsters activated in a Pendulum Zone are treated as Spell Cards.
•Pendulum Effects can only be activated or applied while placed in the Pendulum Zone.
•Pendulum Effects are treated as the effects of Spell Cards.
•Pendulum Monsters treated as Spell Cards in the Pendulum Zone are not treated as Normal, Continuous, Field, Equip, Quick-Play or Ritual Spells.
•Activating a Pendulum Monster in a Pendulum Zone is treated as the activation of a Spell Card. As a result, the activation can be negated by effects that negate the activations of Spell Cards like “Magic Jammer”. If a Pendulum Monster has its activation as a Spell Card negated, that Pendulum Monster is sent to the Graveyard normally, providing no particular effect is being applied.
•Activating a Pendulum Monster in a Pendulum Zone is only treated as the activation of a Spell Card, and its effects cannot be activated at that time.
•Pendulum Monsters cannot be Set face-down in a Pendulum Zone.
•Among Pendulum Effects, there are effects that are applied while they exist in a Pendulum Zone, and there are effects that can be activated when certain requirements are met. In that case, they are treated as activating the effect of a card and not as the activation of a Spell Card.
•Pendulum Effects that activate are of Spell Speed 1. As a result, they cannot be activated in a chain to the activation of cards or effects.
•Pendulum Effects are invalidated immediately when they leave the field. Also, if a Pendulum Effect is activated, and that Pendulum Monster is destroyed by a card effect activated in a chain, the Pendulum Effect does not resolve.

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3.4 Traps

Activating Trap Cards

•Activating Trap Cards starts a chain. With the exception of Counter Traps, they are of Spell Speed 2. Counter Traps are of Spell Speed 3.
•Trap Cards must be Set. However, if the effect of “Makyura the Destructor” that says “you can activate Trap Cards from your hand.” is applied, you can activate Trap Cards during either player’s turn when you have priority.
[Pictured: Makyura the Destructor, “it is possible to activate Trap Cards from the hand!!”]
•Trap Cards Set on the field can be activated during either player’s turn when that player has priority.
•Trap Cards cannot be activated during the turn in which they are Set. However, if the effect of “Temple of the Kings” that says “You can activate 1 Trap Card the turn it was Set.” is being applied, they can be activated just like Trap Cards Set in previous turns.
•If a Set Trap Card is activated, it is changed from being face-down to face-up in the Spell & Trap Zone.
•If a Trap Card is activated, the opponent can activate a card that negates the activation of Trap Cards in a chain.
•A Trap Card that had its activation negated is sent to the Graveyard, providing no particular effect is being applied. In that case, the Trap Card that is sent to the Graveyard is not treated as being sent from the hand or field to the Graveyard.
•Activated Trap Cards are treated as being face-up on the field.
•Trap Cards are sent to the Graveyard after applying their effects, with the exception of Continuous Traps and some Normal Traps.

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Setting Trap Cards

•During their Main Phase, once the turn player has priority and they do not wish to activate or resolve an effect, the turn player can place Trap Cards from their hand face-down.
•Placing Trap Cards face-down is called Setting them.
•The information of face-down Trap Cards, including whether they are a Spell or Trap Card or not, is private to the opponent. The controller of those face-down cards can always verify them.
•If there are no available Spell & Trap Zones, Trap Cards cannot be Set.

Types of Trap Cards

•The types of Trap Cards vary according to their activation timing and how they resolve after being activated.

Normal Traps

•Trap Cards without an Effect Icon are Normal Trap Cards.
[Pictured: Double Dragon Descent, Bujin Regalia – The Jewel]
•Normal Traps are of Spell Speed 2.
•After activating and resolving their effects, they are sent to the Graveyard, aside from some exceptions.
•Cards like “Bujin Regalia – The Jewel” that equip themselves to a monster after activation are Normal Trap Cards that remain on the field after activation. After they become Equip Cards, they are also treated as Trap Cards. They have every other rule that Equip Spell Cards have.

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•Trap Cards that have the continuous Effect Icon are Continuous Trap Cards.
[Pictured: Cyber Network, Kickfire]
•Continuous Trap that do not have activation requirements can be activated from being face-down at times in which they cannot activate their written effects.
•After activating a Continuous Trap, it remains in the Spell & Trap Zone.
•Unless stated otherwise, Continuous Trap keep exerting their effects as long as they remain face-up in a Spell & Trap Zone.
•There are Continuous Traps that have effects that can activate under certain conditions after their activation. In that case, this is treated as activating an effect and not as activating a Trap Card.
•The effects of face-up Continuous Traps that activate are of Spell Speed 2. As a result, they can be activated in a chain to the activation of cards or effects in most cases.
•The effects of Continuous Traps can be resolved when that card is activated, provided the conditions to activate it are met when the card is activated.
Example: When “Cyber Network” is activated from being face-down, its effect that says “Once per turn, if “Cyber Dragon” is on the field: You can banish 1 LIGHT Machine-Type monster from your Deck.” can be applied. Also, in most cases, when a card is activated from being face-down, only its activation can be performed.

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•As an exception, there are effects that cannot be activated when the card is activated.
Example: Since the effect of “Hazy Glory” that says “You can send this face-up card from the field to the Graveyard to target 1 “Hazy” card in your Graveyard, except “Hazy Glory”; add that target to your hand.” needs to send “Hazy Glory” itself to the Graveyard, it cannot be applied when “Hazy Glory” is activated. It must be activated in a new chain after the activation of the card is finished.
•The effects of Continuous Traps stop applying immediately when they leave the field. Also, if a Continuous Trap that has already been activated activates an effect, and that Continuous Trap is destroyed by a card effect activated in a chain, the effect of the Continuous Trap does not resolve.

Counter Traps

•Traps with the counter Effect Icon are Counter Traps.
[Pictured: Magic Jammer, Vanity’s Call]
•Counter Traps are of Spell Speed 3. As a result, they can be activated in a chain to all cards and effects.
•Counter Traps are activated on the timing when a monster is Normal/Flip/Special Summoned, cards are drawn, or when an attack is declared. Otherwise, they are activated in a chain to the activation of a card or effect.
•Counter Traps that negate the activations of cards or effects must be activated in a chain to the activation of the card or effect that is to be negated.
Example: If “Dust Tornado” is activated in a chain to the activation of “Mystical Space Typhoon”, “Magic Jammer” cannot be activated in a chain to negate the activation of “Mystical Space Typhoon”.
•As an exception, cards like “Vanity’s Call” that have an effect that negates the activation of all previous cards in the chain also exist.
•Counter Traps are sent to the Graveyard after being activated and applying their effects.

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[4] Card Effects

4.1 General Rules for Effects

How to interpretate texts

•In most cases, card texts break down the requirements to resolve the effect like costs and the effect that is applied during the resolution.
Example: For “Puppet Master”, “When this card is Tribute Summoned:” is the activation timing, “You can pay 2000 Life Points” is the activation cost, “2 Fiend-Type monsters in your Graveyard” are the targets, and “Special Summon those targets. They cannot attack this turn.” is the effect resolution.
[Pictured: Puppet Master]

Requirements

Resolution

Timing: When this card is Tribute SummonedSpecial Summon those targets. They cannot attack this turn
Cost: You can pay 2000 Life Points
Targets: 2 Fiend-Type monsters in your Graveyard

Effect Resolution

•In most cases, when the rules and the written resolution of the effects are in contradiction, the written card text takes precedence.
•If the effect of a card is activated and that card is destroyed or otherwise moved to a different location, in most cases the effect resolves.
•If there are multiple parts of an effect for a single effect of a card, they are resolved in the order in which they are written. Also, in most cases, if 1 of the parts of the effect cannot resolve, none of the latter parts are resolved.
[TL note: the OCG often uses the same term (処理) for the resolution of an effect, the various parts of a large effect, or even clauses that are applied after the effect that was activated finishes resolving. In this case, it refers to effects with multiple parts, e.g. “negate the activation, and if you do, destroy it”]

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•It is not possible to make choices that would cause an activated effect to be unable to be resolved.
Example: When the effect of “The Melody of Awakening Dragon” that says “add up to 2 Dragon-Type monsters with 3000 or more ATK and 2500 or less DEF from your Deck to your hand.” it is not possible to choose to resolve the effect by adding 0 cards.

[Pictured: The Melody of Awakening Dragon, “0 cards is not valid!!”]

•If (at the time of the resolution of a single effect) both players need to resolve that effect simultaneously, the turn player performs the resolution first.
Example: When the effect of “Hand Destruction” that says “Each player sends 2 cards from their hand to the Graveyard, then each player draws 2 cards.” resolves, first, the turn player sends 2 cards from their hand to the Graveyard, then the opposite player sends 2 cards from their own hand to the Graveyard. Then, the turn player draws 2 cards, and finally the opposite player draws 2 cards.

[Pictured: Hand Destruction, “Resolves starting from the turn player”]

•The effects of other cards cannot be activated during the resolution of an effect. If the activation timing for a mandatory effect is met during the resolution of an effect, it is activated after that effect finishes resolving.
•Even if an effect fails to resolve properly, the activation timing is treated as if the resolution is performed. As a result, effects cannot be activated during the time in which that failed resolution is performed.

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Controller

•The controller of a card is the player who is using that card.
•For effects of cards, the player who activates that effect is the controller. When an effect resolves, “you/the opponent” is seen from the point of view of the controller of that effect.
Example: Even if you activate the effect of Sylvan Sagequoia that says “Once per turn: You can excavate the top card of your Deck” and the opponent activates Enemy Controller in a chain, taking control of that Sylvan Sagequoia, it is you, the player who activated the effect of Sylvan Sagequoia, that resolves it.

[Pictured: Sylvan Sagequoia, “activates”, “resolves as the effect of the player who activated it” <= Enemy Controller, “is controller by the opponent before resolving”]

Decimal Values

•If LP or ATK/DEF are halved by some effect, so that the result has decimal values, the calculation is rounded up.
Example: If you have 525 LP and you activate Solemn Judgment by paying half your LP, your remaining LP becomes 263.
[Pictured: Solemn Judgment, “525/2 = 262.5; 263 rounding up”]

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Values equal or lower to 0

•If the ATK or DEF values are reduced by some effect and the final result would be equal or lower to 0, the value becomes 0. Also, if the reduced value would be referenced, the actual value that was modified is referenced.
Example: If a 1000 ATK monster would have its ATK reduced by 1400 by the effect of “Black-Winged Dragon” that says “that target loses 700 ATK for each Black Feather Counter you removed, and if it does, inflict damage to your opponent equal to the ATK lost by this effect.“, the ATK of that monster becomes 0 as a result, and 1000 damage is inflicted to the opponent as a result.

[Pictured: Black-Winged Dragon, “1000 ATK is actually reduced = 1000 damage”, => “1400 substraction”, White Tiger Summoner, “1000 ATK”]

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4.2 Activating Cards and Effects

Effects that activate and effects that do not

•There are card effects that activate and start a chain, and effects that are applied immediately without starting a chain if some requirements are met.
•When a Spell or Trap Card is placed face-up on the field, they always start a chain. This is called activating a card.
•Effects that keep being applied as long as the card remains face-up on the field (Continuous Effects of: monsters; Continuous Spells; Field Spells; Equip Spells; Pendulum Effects of Pendulum Monsters; and Continuous Traps) are applied without starting a chain in most cases.

Activating effects

•There are effects of Spell and Trap Cards that activate and start a chain in the Graveyard or field, other than when the card is activated by placing it face-up on the field. This is called activating an effect.
•The Ignition Effects/ Trigger Effects/ Quick Effects of monsters start a chain and constitute activating an effect.
•Activating the effects of Spells and Traps cannot be negated by effects that negate the activation of cards.
•The following effects are examples of cards with effects that activate.
-Effects that activate on the field after the activation of the card concludes.
-Effects that can be activated while the card is in the Graveyard or when it is sent to the Graveyard.

[Pictured: Mausoleum of the Emperor, “activates on the field”, Magical Blast, “activates in the Graveyard]

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Costs

•Costs are requirements that are necessary to activate a card or effect.
•Costs must be performed at the time the card is activated, and even if the activation or effect of the card is negated, they are not refunded.
•If the player cannot suffice the costs, they cannot activate the card.
•Costs are not treated as card effects.
•Unless stated otherwise, costs can only be paid with cards in your possession.

Tributing Costs

•In order to activate effects that read “Tribute […];”, those monsters need to be Tributed. The Tributed monsters are sent to the Graveyard.
[TL Note: This bullet point lists the new (リリースして発動できる) and old (生け贄に捧げ発動できる) terms in the OCG for tributing. This is the PSCT equivalent]
•The Tributed monsters are not treated as being destroyed. As a result, they are treated as being sent to the Graveyard.
•Even if the monsters that would be Tributed as a cost need to meet certain requirements, face-down monsters on the field can be sent to the Graveyard.
Example: A face-down “Bujin Yamato” can be Tributed as a cost to activate “Bujinfidel”, which reads “Tribute 1 Beast-Warrior-Type “Bujin” monster“.
[Pictured: Bujinfidel, “can tribute even if face-down” => Bujin Yamato]
•Even if “Macro Cosmos” or something similar is being applied, so that monsters that would be sent to the Graveyard are banished, you can still Tribute monsters. In that case, the Tributed monsters are not sent to the Graveyard and are banished instead.

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Costs that Discard from the Hand

•For costs that read “discard a card(s) from the hand;”, cards from the hand must be discarded from the hand in order to activate the effects. Cards that are discarded are treated as being discarded from the hand and as being sent to the Graveyard as a result.
[TL note: PSCT does not actually use “from the hand”, as it is redundant]
•When paying costs that say “discard to the Graveyard”, if “Macro Cosmos” or something similar is being applied, so that cards that would be sent to the Graveyard are banished, the activation of cards that discard to the Graveyard as a cost cannot be performed. Costs that simply say “discard” can be paid. In that case, the cards are not sent to the Graveyard and are banished as a result.
Example: The effect of “Mermail Abyssbalaen” that says “You can discard 4 other “Mermail” monsters to the Graveyard;” cannot be activated if the effect of “Macro Cosmos” is being applied.

[Pictured: Mermail Abyssbalaen, “cannot activate”, Macro Cosmos, “would banish”, 4 Mermail Monsters, “cannot be discarded from the hand to the Graveyard]

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Costs that Send to the Graveyard

•For costs that read “send to the Graveyard;”, those monsters must be sent to the Graveyard in order to activate the effect.
•The monsters sent to the Graveyard are not treated as being destroyed.
•Cards sent from the hand to the Graveyard are not treated as being discarded from the hand.
•If a monster that would be sent to the Graveyard as a cost needs to meet certain requirements, a face-down monster on the field cannot be sent to the Graveyard.
Example: A face-down Plant-Type monster cannot be sent to the Graveyard to activate the cost of the effect of “Orea, the Sylvan High Arbiter”, which reads “You can send 1 Plant-Type monster from your hand or face-up from your side of the field to the Graveyard;“.
[Pictured: Orea, the Sylvan High Arbiter =X> face-down Defense Position monster, “cannot send a face-down monster to the Graveyard as a cost”]

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Activation Requirements

•The activation requirements and particular timings written for effects must be met.
Example: “Tachyon Chaos Hole” can be activated “When a face-up “Galaxy” Xyz Monster(s) you control is destroyed by battle with an opponent’s attacking monster, or by an opponent’s card effect, and sent to your Graveyard:“. If you fail to meet all the requirements, the card cannot be activated.
[Pictured: Tachyon Chaos Hole, “activate when all the requirements are met”]
•If some effect would be activated, and the resolution of that effect cannot be performed completely, it cannot be activated.
Example: If the opponent does not control any face-up monsters, “Smashing Ground”, which has an effect that reads “Destroy the 1 face-up monster your opponent controls that has the highest DEF (your choice, if tied).“, cannot be activated.

[Pictured: Smashing Ground, “X”, “cannot be activated if the opponent does not have any face-up monsters”]

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Mandatory and Optional Effects

•In most cases, effects that require costs to activate, or that say “: you can[…]” are effects that can be activated optionally during that timing if the player chooses to. If the effect has a necessary cost, the cost is paid at the time the activation is performed.
[TL Note: In OCG texts, “発動できる” (lit. “can activate” is at the very end of the activation requirements. Its PSCT equivalent is a little more ambiguous in its placing.]
•Effects that read simply read “activate” are always activated regardless of the volition of the player. If the effect has a necessary cost, it must be paid at the time the activation is performed. If the cost is not paid, the activation is not performed.
[TL Note: Same problem as above. There is no consistent term in PSCT to indicate a mandatory effect, just a lack of “you can”. In the OCG, “発動する” (lit. “is activated”) at the end of the activation requirements indicates that the effect is mandatory]

Effects that Meet Their Activation Requirements in the Middle of the Resolution of an Effect or Chain

•If the Trigger Effect of a monster, or the effects of Spell/Trap Cards that activate with a specific timing, meet their timing during the resolution of a card or a chain, whether they can activate or not varies depending on 3 cases if they say “activate”, “if […] you can” or “when […] you can”.
•Effects that say “activate if/when […]” must activate. As a result, if a chain or another card effect is resolving at the particular timing in which they activate, they activate after those resolutions are over.
Example: If “Terrene Toothed Tsuchinoko” is Special Summoned by a “Call of the Haunted” activated in a chain to a Normal Spell Card, the effect of the Normal Spell Card resolves immediately after the Special Summon. Afterwards, the effect of “Terrene Toothed Tsuchinoko” that says “Change all other Special Summoned monsters on the field to face-down Defense Position.” activates mandatorily.

[Pictured: Galactic Charity, “Chain Link 1”, Call of the Haunted, “Chain Link 2” => “Special Summon” Terrene Toothed Tsuchinoko, “the effect activates after Chain Link 1 finishes resolving”]

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•Effects that say “if […] you can” can be activated if their meet their activation requirements during the resolution of other cards. If an “if […] you can” effect meets its activation timing during the resolution of an effect / chain, you can choose to activate them after all those effects / chains finish resolving.
Example: If “Gogogo Ghost” is Special Summoned by a “Call of the Haunted” activated in a chain to a Normal Spell Card, the effect of the Normal Spell Card resolves immediately after the Special Summon. Afterwards, the effect of “Gogogo Ghost” that says “If this card is Special Summoned: You can target 1 “Gogogo Golem” in your Graveyard; Special Summon that target in face-up Defense Position.” can be activated.
[Pictured: Galactic Charity, “Chain Link 1”, Call of the Haunted, “Chain Link 2” => “Special Summon” Gogogo Ghost, “the effect can be activated after Chain Link 1 finishes resolving”]

•Effects that say “when […] you can” can only be activated during that timing. If an effect or chain is resolving when a “when […] you can” meets its activation timing, it is not possible to choose to activate that effect or not, and as a result it cannot be activated.
If “Sylvan Cherubsprout” is Special Summoned by a “Call of the Haunted” activated in a chain to a Normal Spell Card, since the effect of the Normal Spell Card resolves immediately after the Special Summon, the effect of “Sylvan Cherubsprout” that says “When this card is Special Summoned: You can choose either 1 or 2, then excavate that many cards from the top of your Deck” cannot be activated.
[Pictured: Galactic Charity, “Chain Link 1”, Call of the Haunted, “Chain Link 2” => “Special Summon” Sylvan Cherubsprout, “the effect cannot be activated”]

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Targets for Effects

•There are some effects that target 1 or more cards when they are activated. Targets are the cards that are affected by that scope of that effect. As long as the targets are not affected by other card effects, they cannot be changed until the effect resolves.
•Effects that say “target” are effects that target. Targets are selected when the effect is activated. Even if the effect is negated, it is not forgotten that they have been targeted. However, if the activation of that effect is negated, the cards are no longer targeted.
[TL Note: This bullet point uses two OCG terms for targeting, “対象として” (lit. “[…] as a target”) and “選択して” (lit. “select”). PSCT simply says “target”]
•When a targeting effect resolves, if the targets have been moved to a different location, the targets that have been moved and are no longer appropriate are not affected by the effect. Also, if an effect is activated targeting 2 or more cards, and afterwards (before the resolution) 1 of them has been moved to a different location, the effect is applied, except if some particular requirement must be met.
Example: “Icarus Attack” was activated targeting 2 cards on the field. If 1 of the targeted cards is sent to the Graveyard by another card effect in a chain, the effect of “Icarus Attack” that says “destroy them.” is applied on the remaining card.
•Cards that have an effect that says they cannot be targeted for effects cannot be targeted to activate effects that target. After a card has been targeted to activate an effect, if that card is affected by an effect that makes it unable to be targeted, since it has already been targeted, the effect is still applied afterwards.
Example: When the opponent activates “Compulsory Evacuation Device”, which says “Target 1 monster on the field; return that target to the hand.” targeting a monster, if you activate “Safe Zone” targeting the same monster, that monster is affected by the effect of “Safe Zone” that says “that face-up monster cannot be targeted or destroyed by your opponent’s card effects“, but since it has already been targeted for the effect of “Compulsory Evacuation Device”, the effect resolves afterwards and it is returned to the hand.

[Pictured: Compulsory Evacuation Device, “Chain Link 1”, “targets” => Odd-Eyes Dragon, “Returns to the hand” <= "Targets", Safe Zone, “Chain Link 2”]

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Effects that do not target

•The following are examples of effects that do not target.
-Effects that choose cards from the Decks or either player’s hand, or otherwise affect private locations.
-Effects that affect all cards it can affect in its scope.
-Effects that choose cards at random or otherwise effects that are uncertain about which cards they will affect at the time of their activation.
-Effects that “choose” their scope when they resolve.
[TL note: “choose” here is the PSCT equivalent of “選ぶ”. Using “choose” over “select” implicitly indicates the effect does not target in PSCT]
Example: The effect of “Artifact Beagalltach” that says “If this card is Special Summoned during your opponent’s turn: Destroy up to 2 Set cards you control” activates when it is Special Summoned successfully, and chooses the cards that are destroyed when the effect resolves, without targeting.
[Pictured: Artifact Beagalltach, “chooses at resolution”, Artifact Sanctum, “chooses from the Deck”]

Resolving Chains

•When multiple cards or effects activate in a single timing, they activate in a chain and resolve following chaining rules.

Spell Speeds

•All effects that activate have a Spell Speed that determines which cards they can be activated in a chain to.

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Speed Speed 1

•Spell Speed 1 effects in most cases are effects that cannot be freely activated by the player in a chain towards other effects when the player has priority.
•If multiple effects meet their particular activation timing at the same time like Trigger Effects of monsters, they form a chain and resolve according to the rules of chaining like in the example.
•The following effects are Spell Speed 1 effects:
Normal Spells/ Equip Spells/ Field Spells/ Continuous Spells/ Ritual Spells/ Pendulum Effects/ Monster Effects (except Quick Effects)
[Pictured: Galatic Charity, “Normal Spell”, Gogogo Talisman, “Continuous Spell”, Caius the Shadow Monarch, “Trigger Effect”]

Spell Speed 2

•Speed Speed 2 effects are effects that can be activated when you have priority. However, they cannot be activated in a chain to Spell Speed 3 effects.
•The following effects are Spell Speed 2 effects:
Quick-Play Spells/ Normal Traps/ Continuous Traps/ Quick Effects of monsters

[Pictured: Mystical Space Typhoon, “Quick-Play Spell”, Bujingi Hare, “Quick Effect”]

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Spell Speed 3

•Spell Speed 3 effects can be activated when you have priority.
•Spell Speed 3 effects can be activated in a chain towards all effects.
•Only Counter Trap Cards are Spell Speed 3 effects.

[Pictured: Seven Tools of the Bandit, Counter Trap Card]

How to build a chain

•When one player activates a card or effect, that activation becomes chain link 1 of a chain. At that time priority is passed to the opponent, who can decided whether or not to activate a card or effect that activates optionally. Afterwards, priority returns to the first player once again, who can decided whether or not to activate cards. However, if multiple Trigger Effects activate simultaneously at the same timing, they are activated following the order of priority.
•If a card is activated as Chain Link 1, a card activated in a chain to it is activated as Chain Link 2. The following one is activated as Chain Link 3, then Chain Link 4, etc.
•When neither player wants to activate cards, the chain that has been built resolves.

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If Multiple Effects are Activated Simultaneously

•When multiple cards that have an effect that activates when they are sent to the Graveyard are sent to the Graveyard simultaneously or something similar, this is a case in which the effects activate simultaneously in a particular timing. In this case, they form a chain according to the following priority levels. If there are multiple cards in the same priority level, the chain is built starting from the turn player.
Priority Level 1: The effects of cards that activate mandatorily in that timing.
Priority Level 2: The effects of cards that are face-up on the field or Graveyard or are otherwise public which can be optionally activated in that timing.
Priority Level 3: The effects of cards that are in the hand or Set or are otherwise private which can be optionally activated in that timing.
Example: If “Solemn Judgment” is Set, “Light and Darkness Dragon” is on the field and “Mystical Space Typhoon” is activated, “Mystical Space Typhoon” is activated as Chain Link 1, and next the mandatory effect of “Light and Darkness Dragon” is activated. Afterwards, since the optional “Solemn Judgment” that is Set cannot be activated directly in a chain to “Mystical Space Typhoon”, it cannot be activated as a result.

[Pictured: Mystical Space Typhoon, “Chain Link 1” <= Light and Darkness Dragon, “Activates mandatorily”, “Chain Link 2” =X= Solemn Judgment, “face-down”, “cannot activate”]

Example: You have “Skill Drain” and “Solemn Judgment” Set on your side of the field, and the opponent has “Mystical Space Typhoon” and “Trap Stun” on their side of the field. If you activate “Skill Drain” and the opponent activates “Mystical Space Typhoon” in a chain, since you are the next player who can activate cards, you can activate “Solemn Judgment”. Afterwars, since the opponent’s “Trap Stun” is of Spell Speed 2, it cannot be activated in a chain to the Counter Trap Card “Solemn Judgment”.

[Pictured: Skill Drain, “Chain Link 1”, Mystical Space Typhoon, “Chain Link 2”, Solemn Judgment, “Chain Link 3” <X= Trap Stun “cannot activate”]

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•If effects are activated simultaneously in the same particular timing, Spell Speed 1 effects can also be activated in a chain as an exception.
Example: While the opponent has a Set “Bottomless Trap Hole”, if the turn player activates the effect of “Mermail Abyssmegalo” that says “You can discard 2 other WATER monsters to the Graveyard;” by discarding “Atlantean Dragoons” and “Atlantean Marksman” as a cost, when Mermail Abyssmegalo is Special Summoned successfully, first, the mandatory Trigger Effects of “Atlantean Dragoons” and “Atlantean Marksman” in the Graveyard are activated in the order that the controller prefers. Afterwards, it is decided whether or not to activate the effect of “Mermail Abyssmegalo”, and the opponent can choose to activate “Bottomless Trap Hole” in response or not.

[Pictured: Atlantean Dragoons, Atlantean Marksman, “mandatory Trigger Effects”, “form a chain in the prefered order” <= Mermail Abyssmegalo, Bottomless Trap Hole “activated in a chain to the effect of Mermail Abyssmegalo”]

•If multiple cards of the same player in the same priority level would be activated, they form a chain in the order prefered by the player.
•If a card in the hand becomes public by some card effect, that card can be activated in the priority level 2 timing.

How to Resolve Chains

•If a chain is built and neither player wants to activate activate cards anymore, the chain resolves.
•Chains resolve starting from the more recently activated card.
•Other card effects cannot be activated while the chain is resolving.
•Cards like Normal Spell Cards or Normal Trap Cards that are sent to the Graveyard after resolving are all sent to the Graveyard after the chain finishes resolving.

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4.3 Resolution of Effects

Conditions Necessary for the Resolution

•At the time an effect resolves, if the targets for that effect or the cards that it would affect no longer exist, the effect does not resolve.
•There are cases in which if an effect that needs to meet requirements at activation or that affects only some particular cards is activated, and later the card that activated, the targets for the effect, or the cards that it would affect no longer meet some particular requirements, that effect is not applied.
Example: For the effect of Zombie Master that says “Once per turn: You can send 1 monster from your hand to the Graveyard, then target 1 Level 4 or lower Zombie-Type monster in either player’s Graveyard; Special Summon that target. This card must be face-up on the field to activate and to resolve this effect.“, if “Zombie Master” is no longer face-up as a result of a card effect being activated in a chain or something similar, the Special Summoning effect does not resolve.

[Pictured: Zombie Master, “if removed from the field, it does not resolve” <= "activate", Raigeki Break, “destroy before resolution”]

Example: For the effect of “High Tide on Fire Island” that says “Apply the appropriate effects, in sequence, depending on the Attributes of monsters you control at that time.“, if there are no WATER or FIRE monsters as a result of a card effect being activated in a chain or something similar, the effect does not resolve.

[Pictured: High Tide on Fire Island, “If there are no monsters at the time of the resolution, the effect does not resolve”]

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End of an Effect Resolution

•In most cases, the effect of a single card is performed simultaneously. However, if 2 or more different parts of an effect are performed, they can also be performed in different timings in the order in which they are written. In that case, the timing when the effect finishes resolving is the last part of that effect that is performed.
Example: All of the parts of the effect of “V Salamander” that says “negate the equipped monster’s effects (even after this card leaves the field or the monster becomes unaffected by card effects), and if you do, destroy all monsters your opponent controls, and if you do that, inflict 1000 damage to your opponent for each monster destroyed by this effect.” are performed simultaneously. After all the parts of the effect are performed, since the timing is both “was destroyed” and “damage was taken”, an effect that activates “when destroyed: you can […]” can be activated.
[Pictured: V Salamander, “destruction + damage simultaneously” => Michael, the Arch-Lightsworn, “can activate”]
Example: For effects like the effect of “Number S39: Utopia Prime”, which says “destroy as many Special Summoned monsters your opponent controls as possible, and if you do, banish them, then inflict 300 damage to your opponent for each monster banished.“, that say “then”, after performing the first part of the effect, the effect finishes resolving with the timing of performing the next part of the effect. Since the timing of “was banished” occurs in the middle of the resolution of the effect, effects that activate “when banished: you can […]” cannot be activated.
[Pictured: Number S39: Utopia Prime, “damage after destroying, not simultaneous” => Dark Desertapir, “cannot activate”]

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Examples of Particular Effect Resolutions

“Cannot” Perform Certain Actions

[Pictured: G.B. Hunter, Jowgen the Spiritualist]
•If a part of an effect asks to perform an action, and the effect of another card says that same action cannot be performed, in most cases the effect that says “cannot” takes precedence.
Example: If the effect of “Imperial Iron Wall” that says “Neither player can banish cards.” is being applied, when “Dark Magician of Chaos” is destroyed and it would leave the field and its effect that says “If this face-up card would leave the field, banish it instead.” would be applied, it cannot banish “Dark Magician of Chaos” as a result of “Imperial Iron Wall” being applied, and it is sent to the Graveyard.

[Pictured: Imperial Iron Wall, “applying”, Dark Magician of Chaos, “is not applied”]

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Choosing at Random

[Pictured: Blue Duston, Spellbook Library of the Crescent]
•If a card is to be chosen at random, the opponent chooses the card in a way so that they do not know the details of the cards. Also, if a card among public cards is to be chosen at random, the opponent chooses a card from those cards while face-down so that they do not know the cards.
Example: If the effect of “Spellbook Library of the Crescent” that says “Reveal 3 “Spellbook” Spell Cards with different names from your Deck, your opponent randomly adds 1 of them to your hand” resolves, first, 3 “Spellbook” cards are extracted from the Main Deck and they are verified by the opponent, then the opponent chooses one among them while face-down so that they do not know which card it is.

Drawing

•Taking the top card of the Main Deck is called drawing.
•If multiple cards are drawn, this is performed by taking cards in order from the top, but this is treated as drawing all cards simultaneously.
•Even if cards are drawn by a card effect during the Draw Phase, that drawing is not treated as the normal draw of the turn.

[Pictured: Pot of Greed, Sylvan Charity]

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•If a player has 0 cards left in their Deck, that player cannot activate an optional effect that draws cards. Similarly, effects that draw multiple cards cannot be activated if it is not possible to draw that many cards. However, effects like “Reload” that draw cards after adding cards to the Deck can be activated even if there are no cards in the Deck.
•If cards are sent from the Deck to the Graveyard during the resolution of a card, so that the player becomes unable to draw cards but is forced to by a mandatorily activated effect, that player loses the Duel.
•If cards from the Deck are added to the hand by an effect that does not draw cards but “adds them to the hand”, this is not treated as drawing cards.
Example: If a card is added to the hand by the effect of “Pot of Duality” that says “Excavate the top 3 cards of your Deck, add 1 of them to your hand, also, after that, shuffle the rest back into your Deck.“, this is not treated as drawing cards.
[Pictured: Pot of Duality, “not treated as drawing cards]
•Cards that are drawn are treated as being added to the hand.
•Effects that count each time that cards are drawn are only applied once each time cards are added to the hand.
Example: While the effect of “Solemn Wishes” that says “Increase your Life Points by 500 points each time you draw a card (or cards).” is being applied, if you activate the effect of “Pot of Greed” that says “Draw 2 cards.” and draw 2 cards, since you only draw cards once, you gain 500 LP.
[Pictured: Solemn Wishes, “only increases 500 LP for each time” <= Pot of Greed, “draw 2 cards”]

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Location Changing

Destroying

[Pictured: Smashing Ground, Number 36: Chronomaly Chateau Huyuk]
•Cards that are destroyed by a card effect are sent to the Graveyard afterwards.
•Card that are destroyed and sent to the Graveyard are treated as destroyed cards as well as cards sent to the Graveyard.
•If “Macro Cosmos” or something similar is activated, so that cards that would be sent to the Graveyard are banished, cards that are destroyed are not sent to the Graveyard and are banished instead.
•Cards in the Graveyard or that are banished cannot be destroyed.
Example: If the activation of the effect of “Drill Warrior” that says “Special Summon this card banished by this effect” is negated by the effect of “Divine Wrath” that says “negate the activation, and if you do, destroy that monster“, the activation of the effect of that “Drill Warrior” is negated, but it is not treated as being destroyed and it remains banished.

[Pictured: Drill Warrior, “remains banished” <= Divine Wrath, “negates the activation of the effect but does not destroy]
•For effects that say “destroy and sent to the Graveyard” or “destroy and banish”, if they cannot destroy the card, the part of the effect that sends to the Graveyard or banishes is not performed either.

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Discarding

[Pictured: Thestalos the Firestorm Monarch, Swarm of Crows]
•Cards discarded from the hand by a card effect are sent to the Graveyard.
•Cards that are discarded from the hand to the Graveyard are treated as cards that were discarded as well as cards that were sent from the hand to the Graveyard.
•Cards that are discarded are not treated as being destroyed.
•If “Macro Cosmos” or something similar is activated, so that cards that would be sent to the Graveyard are banished, discarded cards are not sent to the Graveyard and are banished instead.

Sending to the Graveyard

[Pictured: Foolish Burial, Number 50: Blackship of Corn]
•Cards that are sent to the Graveyard are not treated as destroyed cards or Tributed cards.
•If cards with an effect that prevents cards from being destroyed by effects is being applied, effects that send cards to the Graveyard are still applied.

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•Cards sent from the hand to the Graveyard are not treated as cards that are discarded from the hand.
Example: If “The Fabled Cerburrel” is sent to the Graveyard by the effect of “Bujin Yamato” that says “You can add 1 “Bujin” monster from your Deck to your hand, then send 1 card from your hand to the Graveyard“, since “The Fabled Cerburrel” is not treated as being discarded from the hand, its effect that says “If this card is discarded to the Graveyard: Special Summon it” cannot be activated.

[Pictured: Bujin Yamato, “sends to the Graveyard” => The Fabled Cerburrel, “cannot activate”]

•If “Macro Cosmos” or something similar is activated, so that cards that would be sent to the Graveyard are banished, cards are not sent to the Graveyard and are banished instead.
•If control of a card changes and it is to the Graveyard by the resolution of a card effect, that card is sent to the owner’s Graveyard.

Banishing

•Effects that say “banish from play” or simply “banish” behave the same way.
•Cards that are banished from play by a card effect are placed outside of the Dueling Field, so that their owner can be recognized.
•Cards that are banished are returned to the Main Deck to be used in the next Duel.

[Pictured: Caius the Shadow Monarch, Dimensional Fissure]

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•If a card changes its controller and it is banished by the resolution of a card effect, in most cases it is banished as a card of its owner.

Effects that temporarily banish a card

[Pictured: Interdimensional Matter Transporter, Evilswarm Thunderbird]
•If a monster banished by an effect for a time determined by those cards returns to the field, this is not treated as a Special Summon. As a result, Special Summon Monsters that have not been properly Special Summoned can also be returned.
•In most cases, cards that are banished temporarily do not start a chain when they are returned to the field.
•When cards that have been banished temporarily are returned to the field, they are returned in the battle position they were in before being banished. Similarly, if their controller had changed, they are returned to the side of the field of the controller they had before being banished. Also, if cards are banished face-down, they are returned face-down.
•If there are monsters in all 5 Monster Zones when a monster that has been banished temporarily would return to the field, that monster is not returned to the field and it is sent to the Graveyard.
•If a card that has been banished temporarily is Special Summoned or sent to the Graveyard by the effect of other cards, it is not returned to the field at the timing it would be returned to the field.
Example: After a monster banished by the effect of “Interdimensional Matter Transporter” that says “banish that target until the End Phase.” is Special Summoned by the effect of “D.D.R. – Different Dimension Reincarnation” that says “Special Summon it in face-up Attack Position, and equip it with this card“, if it is banished once again, that monster is not returned to the field during the End Phase.
•If a card that is banished temporarily is returned to the field, in most cases it is not affected by the effects that were affecting it before it was banished.

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Returning to the Deck

[Pictured: Gladiator Beast Augustus, Constellar Meteor]
•If cards are returned to the Deck by a card effect, that card is added face-down to the Deck and is shuffled. However, if a card is returned to a specified location like the top or bottom of the Deck, the shuffling is not performed.
•If, at the timing a card effect can be activated, that card has been returned to the Deck, in most cases that effect cannot be activated.
Example: If “Dandylion” has been discarded as a cost to activate “Raigeki Break”, and the effect of “The Transmigration Prophecy” that says “shuffle those targets into the Deck(s)” is activated in a chain, so that the discarded “Dandylion” is returned to the Deck, the effect of “Dandylion” does not activate.

[Pictured: The Transmigration Prophecy => Dandylion, “returned to the Deck before activating, “cannot activate”]

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Returning/Adding to the Hand

[Pictured: Diamond Core of Koa’ki Meiru, Honest]
•Effects that add or return cards from locations outside the hand to the hand resolve in the same way.
•If a specific card is added from the Deck to the hand by a card effect, this is not treated as drawing the card.

Changing Controllers

[Pictured: Mind Control, Evilswarm Coppelia]
•Cards that switch control are treated as cards of their current controller. They can also be used to pay costs or for Special Summons like Xyz Summons or Synchro Summons.
•If a card on the field that has changed control later leaves the field, it is moved to the owner’s location.
Example: If you take control of an opponent’s monster by the effect of your “Snatch Steal” that says “Take control of the equipped monster” and that monster is destroyed, that monster is sent to the opponent’s Graveyard.

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•If you have 5 monsters in your Monster Zones, you cannot activate an effect that would take control of an opponent’s monster. Also, if you have 5 monsters in your Monster Zones before the resolution of an effect that switches control of a monster, the monster that would switch control is destroyed and sent to the Graveyard. In that case, it is not treated as being destroyed by a card effect.
Example: After you take control of an opponent’s monster with the effect of “Enemy Controller” that says “take control of that target until the End Phase“, if there are 5 monsters in the opponent’s Monster Zones, the monster whose control would return is destroyed and sent to the Graveyard.

Negating

•If the activation of a card or effect is negated, the effect is not applied.
•If the activation of the card is negated, that card is sent to the Graveyard. If the activation of the effect of a card on the field is negated, that card remains on the field.
•Unless stated otherwise, cards that have the activation of their effects negated are not moved from their location. If the effect says something like “negate the activation, and if you do, destroy it”, after being negated, the card is destroyed and sent to the Graveyard.

Negating the Activation of Cards

[Pictured: Dark Bribe, Norito the Moral Leader]
•Effects that negate the activations of Spell/Trap Cards can negate the activation of the card by activating when those cards that would be negated are placed face-up on the field.
•If the activation of the card is negated, its effect does not resolve.

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•Effects that negate activations must be activated in a chain directly to the activation of the effect they aim to negate.
Example: If the opponent activates “Mystical Space Typhoon”, you pass priority to activate cards, and the opponent activates another card in a chain, you cannot activate a card that negates the activations of Spell Cards like “Magic Jammer” to negate the activation of “Mystical Space Typhoon”.

[Pictured: Mystical Space Typhoon, “Chain Link 1” <= Raigeki Break, “chain Link 2” <X= Magic Jammer, “cannot activate”]

Negating the Activation of Effects

[Pictured: Number 74: Master of Blades, Naturia Landoise]
•Effects that negate the activations of the effects of Spells, Traps, or Effect Monsters, and destroy them, can negate the activation of cards that are placed face-up on the field to be activated, as well as when a face-up card on the field or one in the hand, Graveyard, etc. activates its effect.
•If the activation of an effect is negated, the resolution of that effect is not performed.
•The effect that negates activations must be activated in a chain directly to the activation of the effect that would be negated.

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Negating Effects

[Pictured: Skill Drain, Bujingi Turtle]
•If an effect that simply negates effects is activated in a chain to the activation of a card, the activation of the card is not negated and its effect is not applied afterwards.
•Even if the effect of an activated card is negated, that effect is negated but its resolution is still treated as being performed.
Example: While the effect of “Trap Stun” that says “Negate all other Trap Card effects on the field this turn.” is being applied, if “Karma Cut” is activated by discarding “Mist Valley Baby Roc” as a cost, the effect of “Karma Cut” is negated, but since the timing is treated as that effect being resolved, the effect of the discarded “Mist Valley Baby Roc” that says “When this card is sent directly from the hand to the Graveyard, you can Special Summon it.” cannot be activated.

[Pictured: Trap Stun, “negates effects”, Mist Valley Baby Roc, “cannot activate” “discarded”<= Karma Cut]

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ATK/DEF Modifications

•The original ATK/DEF are the values written in a Monster Card. The original values of a face-up monster on the field can also be modified by card effects.
•If the ATK or DEF of a monster is changed by its own Ignition or Trigger Monster Effect, and later the monster affected by that applied effect has its effects negated, the effect that modified the ATK and DEF is no longer applied after that resolution.
Example: After resolving the effect of “D/D/D Dragon King Pendragon” that says “Once per turn: You can discard 1 card; this card gains 500 ATK” resolves, if the effects of “D/D/D Dragon King Pendragon” are negated by the effect of “Breakthrough Skill” that says “negate the effects of that opponent’s face-up monster, until the end of this turn“, the ATK of “D/D/D Dragon King Pendragon” returns to its original value.

[Pictured: D/D/D Dragon King Pendragon, Breakthrough Skill, “2600 + 500 = 3100” <= "negated" = "returns to 2600"]

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Increasing/Decreasing

•The ATK and DEF that results from effects that increase/decrease the ATK and DEF are not treated as original values.
•If multiple effects that increase or decrease the ATK and DEF are applied, those effects are accumulated.

If the ATK or DEF is Increased or Decreased by an Effect that Activates

[Pictured: Rush Recklessly, Star Seraph Sword]
•There are Monster Effects that are not Continuous, as well as Spells or Traps that are not Continuous/Field/Equip Cards (that activate), that increase/decrease ATK or DEF.
•After an effect that “increases or decreases ATK or DEF” that activates has been applied, if an effect that makes the “ATK or DEF become a determined value” is applied, after it is applied, the effect that “increases or decreases ATK or DEF” that activates is not reapplied.
Example: If a “Wattaildragon” that had its ATK increased to 3200 by the effect of “Rush Recklessly” is affected by the effect of “Blackwing – Gale the Whirlwind”, the ATK of “Wattaildragon” becomes 1600 by the effect of “Blackwing – Gale the Whirlwind”.

[Pictured: Rush Recklessly, Wattail Dragon, “2500 + 700 = 3200 =”, “becomes 1600” <= Blackwing – Gale the Whirlwind, “halves ATK”]

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•After an activated effect that “increases or decreases ATK or DEF” has been applied, if an effect that makes “the original ATK or DEF become a determined value” is applied, after it is applied, the activated effect that “increases or decreases ATK or DEF” is recalculated and applied.
Example: If a “Wattaildragon” that had its ATK increased to 3200 by the effect of “Rush Recklessly” is affected by the effect of “Shrink”, the ATK of “Wattaildragon” becomes 1250, and afterwards, the effect of “Rush Recklessly” is recalculated and applied, and the ATK becomes 1950.
[Pictured: Rush Recklessly, Wattaildragon <= Shrink, “Original ATK is halved”, “1250 + 700 = 1950”]
•If a monster that has been affected by an effect that makes “its value become a determined value” is affected by an effect that “increases or decreases ATK or DEF”, the effect that increases/decreases is applied normally.
Exampe: If a “Wattaildragon” that had its ATK doubled to 5000 by being affected by the effect of “Megamorph” is affected by “Rush Recklessly”, the ATK of “Wattaildragon” becomes 5700.

[Pictured: Megamorph, Wattaildragon, “2500 x 2 = 5000”, Rush Recklessly, “+ 700 = 5700”]

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If the ATK or DEF is Increased or Decreased by a Continuously Applied Effect

[Pictured: Gravekeeper’s Priestess, Scrap Factory]
•There are effects that increase/decrease ATK or DEF continuously as long as they are face-up on the field, like the Continuous Effects of monsters, Continuous/Equip Spells or Continuous Traps.
•While a continuously applied effect that “increases or decreases ATK or DEF” is being applied, if an effect that makes “the ATK or DEF become a determined value” is applied, after applying the effect that “makes the values become a determined value”, the continuously applied effect that “increases or decreases the ATK or DEF” is not recalculated.
Example: If a “Gravekeeper’s Priestess” that has its ATK increased by 200 to 1200 by its own effect is affected by the effect of “Blackwing – Gale the Whirlwind”, the ATK of “Gravekeeper’s Priestess” becomes 600.
•While a continuously applied effect that “increases or decreases ATK or DEF” is being applied, if an effect that makes “the original ATK or DEF become a determined value” is applied, after applying the effect that makes “the values become a determined value”, the continuously applied effect that “increases or decreases ATK or DEF” is recalculated.
Example: If a “Gravekeeper’s Priestess” that has its ATK increased by 200 to 1200 by its own effect is affected by the effect of “Shrink”, after the ATK of “Gravekeeper’s Priestess” becomes 500 by the effect of “Shrink”, the effect of “Gravekeeper’s Priestess” is recalculated and it becomes 700.

[Pictured: Gravekeeper’s Priestess <= Shrink “halves original”, “500 + 200 = 700”]

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•While a continuously applied effect that “increases or decreases ATK or DEF” is being applied, if a continuously applied effect that makes “the ATK or DEF become a determined value” is applied, after applying the continuously applied effect that makes “the values become a determined value”, the continuously applied effect that “increases or decreases ATK or DEF” is recalculated.
Example: If a “Scrap Breaker” that has its ATK increased to 2300 by “Scrap Factory” is equipped with “Megamorph”, first, the ATK becomes 4200 by the effect of “Megamorph”, then, the effect of “Scrap Factory” is recalculated and the ATK becomes 4400.

[Pictured: Scrap Factory, “200+”, Scrap Breaker, “2100 x 2 = 4200”, Megamorph, “= 4400”]

If the values become a determined value

•There are effects that say they make “the original ATK (or DEF) become […]”, which change the original value of the card. The values modified by effects that simply say “the ATK (or DEF) becomes […]” are not treated as original values.
•If multiple effects that make “the original ATK (or DEF) become […]” are applied, in most cases, the value becomes the most recently applied effect.
•If an effect that doubles the ATK or DEF is applied on a monster with ? ATK, the original ATK value is treated as 0.
Example: If a “Gogogo Golem – Golden Form” that had its ATK become 4000 is targeted to activate “Shrink”, since the original ATK of “Gogogo Golem – Golden Form” is ?, its ATK becomes 0.

[Pictured: Gogogo Golem – Golden Form, Shrink, “Original value is treated as 0, 0/2 = 0”]

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If the ATK or DEF Become a Determined Value by an Activated Effect

[Pictured: Blackwing – Gale the Whirlwind, Armored Bee]
•There are Monster Effects that are not Continuous, as well as Spells or Traps that are not Continuous/Field/Equip Cards (that activate), that make the current ATK or DEF become a determined value.
•If a monster affected by an activated effect that makes “the ATK or DEF become a determined value” is being affected by another effect that modifies the ATK or DEF, the result is that determined value. Also, continuously applied effects that modify the ATK/DEF (and are being applied) are not recalculated.
Example: If a “Wattaildragon” that had its ATK doubled to 5000 by applying the effect of “Megamorph” is affected by the activated effect of “Blackwing – Gale the Whirlwind” that makes “the ATK or DEF become a determined value”, the ATK becomes half of its current value of 5000 to become 2500. Afterwards, even if “Megamorph” is destroyed and its effect is no longer applied, the ATK remains at 2500.

[Pictured: Megamorph, “destroyed”, Wattaildragon, 2500 x 2 = 5000″, Blackwing – Gale the Whirlwind, “remains at […]/2 = 2500”]
•After applying an activated effect that makes “the ATK or DEF become a determined value”, if a new effect that modifies the ATK or DEF is applied, it is applied to the value modified by the activated effect that makes “the ATK or DEF become a determined value”.
Example: If “Rush Recklessly” is activated on a “Wattaildragon” that had its ATK halved by the effect of “Armored Bee”, its ATK becomes 1950.

[Pictured: Armored Bee, Wattaildragon, “2500/2 = 1250”, Rush Recklessly, +700 = 1950″]

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If a Continuously Applied Effect that Makes the ATK or DEF Become a Determined Value is Applied

Pictured: Megamorph, Darkworld Shackles]
•There are effects that make the ATK or DEF of a monster become a determined value, as long as the card applying the effect remains face-up on the field, like Continuous Effects of monsters, Continuous/Equip Spells, or Continuous Traps.
•If a continuously applied effect that makes “the ATK or DEF become a determined value” is applied on a monster affected by an activated effect that “increases or decreases the ATK or DEF”, after applying the continuously applied effect that makes “the ATK or DEF become a determined value”, the effect that “increases or decreases ATK or DEF” is not recalculated.
Example: If a “Wattaildragon” that had its ATK increased to 3200 by the effect of “Rush Recklessly” is affected by the effect of “Megamorph”, its ATK is doubled to 5000. Afterwards, the effect of “Rush Recklessly” is not recalculated.
[Pictured: Rush Recklessly, “not recalculated”, Wattaildragon, “Original value doubled, 2500 x 2 = 5000” <= Megamorph, “applied afterwards”]

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If an Effect that Makes the Original ATK or DEF Become a Determined Value is Applied

[Pictured: Shrink, Vice Dragon]
•There are Monster Effects that are not Continuous, as well as Spells or Traps that are not Continuous/Field/Equip Cards (that activate), that make the original ATK or DEF become a determined value.
•If an effect that makes “the original ATK or DEF become a determined value” is applied on a monster that has been affected by an effect that “increases or decreases ATK or DEF”, after calculating the ATK and DEF by the effect that makes “the original ATK or DEF become a determined value”, the effect that “increases or decreases ATK or DEF” is recalculated.
Example: If “Shrink” is activated on an “Armored Kappa” that had its ATK increased by its own effect, after making the original ATK of 400 become 200, the effect of “Armored Kappa” is recalculated and its ATK is increased.

[Pictured: Armored Kappa, “1000+”, “400/2 = 200”, “= 1200”, Shrink, “applied afterwards”]

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Damage

[Pictured: Number C102: Archfiend Seraph, Power Bond]
•If damage is taken by an effect, that player’s LP is reduced by that amount.
•If LP is paid for a cost or LP is lost by an effect, this is not treated as taking damage.
Example: When you lose LP by the clause of “Message in a Bottle” that says “you lose 4000 Life Points during the End Phase“, the effect of “Black-Winged Dragon” that says “If you would take damage from a card effect, place 1 Black Feather Counter on this card instead” cannot be applied.
[Pictured: Message in a Bottle, “lose LP”, Black-Winged Dragon, “cannot apply”]
•If an effect reads “inflict battle damage” like effects that say “when it attacks a Defense Position monster, inflict piercing battle damage to your opponent”, that damage is treated as battle damage.
•For effects that make the opponent take the battle damage you would take, the battle damage that is exchanged is treated as battle damage.

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Equipping Monsters

[Pictured: Inzektor Dragonfly, Vylon Tesseract]
•Monster Cards that are treated as Equip Cards are placed in the Spell & Trap Zone and are treated as Equip Spell Cards.
•If a Monster Card that has become an Equip Card activates or applies an effect, that effect is treated as the effect of an Equip Spell Card.
Example: If the effect of an “Inzektor Hornet” treated as an Equip Card that says “While this card is equipped to a monster: You can send this Equip Card to the Graveyard to target 1 card on the field; destroy that target” is activated targeting an “Evilswarm Thanatos” affected by its effect that says “this face-up card is unaffected by other monster effects this turn“, since that effect is treated as the effect of an Equip Spell Card, “Evilswarm Thanatos” is destroyed.
[Pictured: Evilswarm Thanatos, “can be destroyed by the effect!!” <= Inzektor Hornet, “treated as the effect of a Spell”]

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•If a monster that has been equipped with Equip Cards by its effect has its effects negated, they are destroyed and sent to the Graveyard.
Example: While “Inzektor Hornet” has been equipped with a card by its effect that says “Once per turn: You can equip 1 “Inzektor” monster from your hand or Graveyard to this card“, if the effect of “Skill Drain” is applied, the effects of “Inzektor Hornet” are negated and the monster that was equipped is destroyed and sent to the Graveyard.
[Pictured: Inzektor Hornet, “the effects are negated and the Equip Cards are lost”, Skill Drain]
•Equip Cards are treated as always targeting the equipped monster.
•If the effects of an Equip Card equipped to a monster are negated, the effects are negated but it remains on the field equipped to the equipped monster.
Example: While the Union monster “Armored Cybern” is equipped to a monster, if the effect of “Spell Canceller” that says “The effects of all Spell Cards are also negated” is applied, the effects of “Armored Cybern” are negated but it stays equipped to the equipped monster.

Gemini

•”Normal Summoning a monster again as a Normal Summon” means Normal Summoning a monster that exists on the field once again. This can only be performed once per turn including other Normal Summons during that turn.
[TL Note: the OCG uses the phrase “通常召喚としてもう1度召喚する” (lit. Summon once again as a Normal Summon). PSCT does not mention Normal Summoning again, only Normal Summoning the monster while it is a Normal Monster on the field]
[Pictured: Elemental HERO Neos Alius, Red-Eyes Black Flare Dragon]

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•If the effect that says “This card is treated as a Normal Monster while face-up on the field or in the Graveyard” is being applied, that monster is treated as a Normal Monster.
•If a Level 5 or higher Gemini monster on the field is Normal Summoned once again, it is not necessary to Tribute monsters.
•When a Gemini monster on the field is Normal Summoned once again, cards that negate that Normal Summon can be activated.
•A Gemini monster that has its Summon negated is not treated as being destroyed and sent to the Graveyard from the hand or field.
•A Gemini monster that is Summoned again and gains effects is treated as an Effect Monster.
•If a Gemini monster that has been Summoned again and is treated as an Effect Monster leaves the field, it is not treated as having been Summoned once again.
•If a Gemini monster is Summoned again by being equipped with an Equip Card or by an effect applied on the field, it remains Summoned once again as long as that Equip Card is not destroyed and remains equipped or as long as the effect keeps applying.
•If a Gemini monster treated as a Normal Monster has its effects negated, the effect that says “This card is treated as a Normal Monster while face-up on the field or in the Graveyard” is negated and it is treated as an Effect Monster.
•If a Gemini monster treated as an Effect Monster has its effects negated, the effects after the “•” are negated and it is treated as an Effect Monster.
•If a Gemini monster has its effects negated, it is treated as an Effect Monster.
Example: A Gemini monster that is attacked and destroyed in battle by “Dark Ruler Ha Des” has its effects negated by the effect of “Dark Ruler Ha Des” that says “Negate the effects of monsters destroyed by battle with Fiend-Type monsters you control“, and it is treated as an Effect Monster as long as it is in the Graveyard.

[Pictured: Dark Ruler Ha Des, “negates effects in the Graveyard” => Elemental HERO Neos Alius, “treated as an Effect Monster”]

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Flipping monsters face-down

[Pictured: Book of Moon, Maestroke the Symphony Djinn]
•When a face-up monster is flipped face-down, effects that were affecting it until that point no longer affect it.
Example: If a monster that had its ATK increased by the effect of “Rush Recklessly” that says “Target 1 face-up monster on the field; it gains 700 ATK until the end of this turn” is flipped face-down by the effect of “Book of Moon”, the effect of “Rush Recklessly” is no longer applied.
[Pictured: Rush Recklessly, “not applied”, a face-down Defense Position monster, “flipped face-down” <= Book of Moon]
•If a monster that has been targeted for an already-applying effect of a Continuous/Equip Spell or a Continuous Trap is flipped face-down, that monster is no longer targeted and that targeting effect is no longer applied.
Example: If a monster Special Summoned by the effect of “Call of the Haunted” that says “Activate this card by targeting 1 monster in your Graveyard; Special Summon that target in Attack Position” is flipped face-down, even if “Call of the Haunted” is destroyed afterwards, the effect that says “When this card leaves the field, destroy that target” is no longer applied.
[Pictured: Call of the Haunted, “not destroyed”, a face-down Defense Position monster, “flipped face-down” <= Book of Moon]

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•If a monster that was Normal Summoned, Special Summoned, had its battle position changed, or performed an attack declaration is flipped face-down, it cannot be Flip Summoned that turn.
•Also, even if that monster is flipped face-up by the effect of another card later, its battle position cannot be changed.
•If a monster that performs an attack is flipped face-down and changed to face-up Attack Position during that Battle Phase, since that monster already performed an attack, it cannot attack.
•Monster Tokens cannot be flipped face-down.

Traps Treated as Monsters

[Pictured: Embodiment of Apophis, Shapesister]
•If a Trap Card says it becomes a Monster Card after activation, 1 Monster Zone is chosen when it resolves and it is Special Summoned to that location.
•The Spell & Trap Zone in which that card was placed in before activation cannot be used as long as it exists in a Monster Zone. However, that card is not treated as being in the Spell & Trap Zone.
Example: After “Embodiment of Apophis” is activated, a “Sonic Shooter” which has an effect that says “If there are no cards in your opponent’s Spell & Trap Card Zones, this card can attack your opponent’s Life Points directly” can attack directly if there are no other cards in the Spell & Trap Zone.
[Pictured: Embodiment of Apophis, “treated as a monster”, Sonic Shooter, “can attack directly]

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•A Trap Card treated as a Monster Card by its own effect is treated as a Trap Card and a Monster Card. As a result, it can be destroyed by cards that destroy monsters and cards that destroy Spells or Traps.
•If a Trap Card treated as a Monster Card by its own effect has effects of its own, it is treated as an Effect Monster.
Example: After “Shapesister” becomes a Monster Card, since it does not have any particular effects that it can use written in the card, it is treated as a Normal Monster. After “Stronghold the Moving Fortress” becomes a Monster Card, since it applies its effect that says “While you control “Green Gadget”, “Red Gadget”, and “Yellow Gadget”, this card gains 3000 ATK“, it is treated as an Effect Monster.
•For Trap Cards that have effects that can be activated while they are treated as Monster Cards like “Statue of Anguish Pattern”, which says “You can target 1 card on the field; destroy it“, these are treated as Monster Effects.
Example: While “Skill Drain” is being applied, if “Statue of Anguish Pattern” activates its effect, that effect is negated.
•Activated effects of Trap Cards treated as Monster Cards are still applied even if that Trap Card leaves the field, in most cases.
•If a Trap Card treated as a Monster Card by its own effect is flipped face-down by an effect, it is placed face-down in the Spell & Trap Zone it was in when it was activated. It can be activated in the next turn and become a Monster Card once again.
•If the effects of a Trap Card treated as a Monster Card by its own effect are negated, it is placed face-up in the Spell & Trap Zone it was in when it was activated. Afterwards, even if its effects effects are active again, it is not treated as a Monster Card.
•Trap Cards treated as Monster Cards which say they are not treated as a Trap Card, like “The Phantom Knights of Shadow Veil”, are only treated as Monster Cards. As a result, they cannot be destroyed by effects that destroy Spell or Trap Cards.
•Even if a Trap Card treated as a Monster Card which says it is not treated as a Trap Card is flipped face-down by the effect of “Book of Moon” or something similar, it is flipped face-down in the Monster Zone. If it is flipped face-up again, it is treated as a Monster according to what its text indicates.

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[…] Counters

[Pictured: Breaker the Magical Warrior, Alien Dog]
•Counters like Spell Counters are markers placed on cards on the field by card effects.
•Counters themselves do not perform any effect.
•Counters can be removed for the cost of an effect of the resolution of an effect.
•Counters cannot be placed on face-down cards. If a card that has counters placed on itself is flipped face-down, those counters are removed.
•If counters that can only be placed on a particular card like itself are placed on a card that has its effects negated, those counters are removed.
Example: If a “Morphtronic Map” that had Morph Counters placed on itself by its effect that says “Each time a monster’s battle position is changed, place 1 Morph Counter on this card” has its effects negated, the Morphtronic Counters are removed.
[Pictured: Morphtronic Map, “counters are removed” <= Spell Canceller “negates”]

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•If counters are placed on another card by an effect that places counters, even if the effects of that card are negated, the counters are not removed.
Example: Ice Counters placed by the effect of “Snowdust Giant” that says “reveal any number of WATER monsters from your hand, and place that many Ice Counters on face-up monsters on the field” are not removed if “Snowdust Giant” has its effects negated.
[Pictured: Ventdra, the Empowered Warrior <= "places counters on", Snowdust Giant, “counters are not removed” <= Skill Drain “negates effects”]

Gaining the Effects of […]

[Pictured: Phantom of Chaos, Number C69: Heraldry Crest of Horror]
•Effects that “gain the effects of […]” are only applied as long as the card remains face-up in a Monster Zone. Since the card that gained the gained effects loses them once it leaves the field, effects that activate in the Graveyard or something similar cannot be activated or applied.
Example: If a “Phantom of Chaos” that has gained the effects of “Dark Magician of Chaos” leaves the field, since it loses the gained effects, the effect of “Dark Magician of Chaos” that says “If this face-up card would leave the field, banish it instead” is not applied.

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Example: If a “Phantom of Chaos” that has gained the effects of “Vylon Pentachloro” activates the effect that says “Once per turn, you can either: Target 1 face-up “Vylon” monster you control; equip this card to that target, OR: Unequip this card and Special Summon it in face-up Attack Position“, when the effect finishes resolving, its effect is no longer applied and it is destroyed and sent to the Graveyard.

[Pictured: Vylon Pentachloro <= "gains the effect of", Phantom of Chaos, “equipped and destroyed and sent to the Graveyard”]

•If the effects of another monster are gained by an effect that gains effects, the requirements to use that effect like “can only activate the effect of […] once per turn” are also applied.
•If the effects of another monster are gained by an effect that gains effects, the effect to gain effects itself is lost. Other effects that the monster originally had are not lost.
Example: Even if “Phantom of Chaos” gains the effects of other monsters by its effect, the effect that says “Any Battle Damage your opponent takes from battles involving this card becomes 0” is still applied.

[Pictured: Dark Armed Dragon <= "gains the effect", Phantom of Chaos, “still has its own effect!”]

Prohibiting Use

[Pictured: Prohibition, Psi-Blocker]
[TL note: much like the previous note on prohibiting cards, the OCG uses “cannot play” for Prohibition and Psi-Blocker, while the TCG uses “cannot use”, and “use” in this section only applies for those two cards]
•”Using” a card means the following actions:
-Activating a Spell or Trap Card, Setting them from the hand or Deck, activating or applying the effects of Spells or Traps.
-Normal Summoning monsters, Special Summoning Special Summon Monsters by their requirements, activating the effects of monsters, using a monster as a Fusion/Synchro/Xyz Material, declaring an attack / changing its battle position.
-Activating a Pendulum Monster as a Spell Card. Also, activating or applying Pendulum Effects.
•A prohibited monster cannot be Special Summoned by the effects of other cards.
•If a Fusion Monster or Ritual Monster is prohibited, since Fusion Summons and Ritual Summons are treated as using the card, they cannot be performed.
•Sending a prohibited card to the Graveyard or Tributing it as a cost is not treated as using it.
•Targeting a prohibited card or affecting it with the effects of another card is not treated as using it.
•Applying written clauses in the Effect Text that are not Monster Effects is not treated as using the card.
Example: Even if “Prohibition” declares “Cyber Harpie Lady”, the text of “Cyber Harpie Lady” that says “(This card’s name is always treated as “Harpie Lady”.)” keeps applying.
•If a prohibited Attack Position monster is attacked by the opponent, damage calculation is performed normally, and if the ATK of the opponent’s monster is lower than the ATK of your monster, that monster is destroyed in battle.

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[5] Text that is not an effect

•There are some parts of the Effect Text of cards that are not treated as an effect.
•The text that is not an effect of a card is not negated if the effects of the card are negated.
•The text that is not an effect is applied regardless of the circumstances in which the card is.
Example: Since the text of “Gladiator Beast Tygerius” that says “This card cannot be used as a Fusion Material Monster” is not treated as an effect, a face-down “Gladiator Beast Tygerius” cannot be used as a Fusion Material either.

[Pictured: Gladiator Beast Tygerius]
Example: If “Phantom of Chaos” gains the effects of “Koa’ki Meiru Valafar”, the text that says “During each of your End Phases, destroy this card unless you send 1 “Iron Core of Koa’ki Meiru” from your hand to the Graveyard” is not applied.
[Pictured: Koa’ki Meiru Valafar, Phantom of Chaos]

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•The following are examples of text that is not treated as an effect.
-The requirements of Special Summon Monsters to Special Summon themselves.
[Pictured: Black Luster Soldier – Envoy of the Beginning, Bujin Hirume]
-Text that says “otherwise, if you do not do either, destroy this card” or something similar in order to maintain that card.
[Pictured: Koa’ki Meiru Ghoulungulate, Armor Exe]
-Text that specifies the activation requirements for that effect like “the effect of […] can only be activated once per turn”.
-Text that specifies the type of Material that the card cannot be used as, like “cannot be used as a Synchro Material”. Also, the text that designates the other Materials to be used.

5.1 Text that Specifies the Activation Requirements

•Text that specifies the activation requirements for that effect, like “the effect of […] can only be activated once per turn”, is text that is not an effect.
•If an activation is not negated, but later the effect is negated or is unable to resolve, the effect still counts as having been activated.
•If “can only be used (or activated) once per turn” is written in a Monster Card, if the activation is negated, that effect cannot be activated again in the same turn.

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•If “can only be activated once per turn” is written in a Spell or Trap Card, if the activation of that card is negated, another card with the same name can be activated again in the same turn.
Example: If the activation of “Pot of Duality” is negated by “Magic Jammer”, if you have another copy of “Pot of Duality” in your hand, it can be activated again in the same turn.

[Pictured: Magic Jammer, Pot of Duality]
•If “can only be used once per turn” is written in a Spell or Trap Card that is already face-up, if that effect has its activation negated, it cannot be activated again during the same turn.
•If “the effect(s) of this card can only be activated once per turn” or simply “once per turn:” is written, if that card is flipped face-down or leaves the field and it later appears on the field face-up once again, the same effect of cards with the same name can be activated. However, if control switches to the opponent, the effect cannot be activated.
[TL note: This above passage doesn’t mention the effect being activated prior to the card leaving the field, being flipped face-down, or switching control. Just assume that it did?]
•If “the effect of [card name] can only be used once per turn” is written with a particular card name, if that card leaves the field and returns to the field in the same turn, that card or cards with the same name cannot activate that effect in that turn. The same applies if “can only be used once per Duel” is written. However, if control switches to the opponent, monsters with the same name that the opponent controls can activate that effect.
•For cards like “Fire King Avatar Yaksha” that say “You can only use this effect of “Fire King Avatar Yaksha” once per turn“, the text that says “this effect” only refers to the previous effect. The other effects of that card can still be activated.

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5.2 Text that Determines Materials

•The text that indicates that a monster cannot be a Synchro Material, or that indicates the Synchro Monster that can be Synchro Summoned using it, is text that is not an effect.
-“Cannot be used as a Synchro Material” is text that indicates that the monster iself cannot be used as a Material. However, if the requirement also says “as long as this card is face-up” in cards like “Blackwing – Vayu the Emblem of Honor”, that is a Continuous Effect.

[Pictured: Kurivolt, Chimeratech Fortress Dragon]

-“If this card is used as a Synchro Material, the other monsters must be […]” is text that indicates the other Synchro Materials.
-“Cannot be used as a Synchro Material Monster, except for the Synchro Summon of a Machine-Type monster” is text that indicates the monster that would be Synchro Summoned.

[Pictured: Mara of the Nordic Alfar, Mecha Phantom Beast Blue Impala]

-“you can use monsters in your hand as non-Tuner Synchro Materials” is text that indicates the Synchro Materials in the hand.
[Pictured: T.G. Cyber Magician]

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Special Victory Conditions

•Text that directly affects the state of the game like “you win the Duel” or “you win the Match” is text that is not an effect.
•Even if those conditions are met during the resolution of an effect, if those conditions are not met after all the parts of the effect finish resolving, a victory cannot be declared.
Example: If the condition for “Exodia the Forbidden One” that says “If you have “Right Leg of the Forbidden One”, “Left Leg of the Forbidden One”, “Right Arm of the Forbidden One” and “Left Arm of the Forbidden One” in addition to this card in your hand, you win the Duel” is met when cards are drawn by the effect of “Graceful Charity” that says “Draw 3 cards, then discard 2 cards“, if the condition is not met after resolving the effect of “Graceful Charity” that says “then discard 2 cards“, a victory cannot be declared.

[Pictured: Graceful Charity, “draw 3 cards” => “then discard and a victory cannot be declared”, Exodia the Forbidden One]

•If those conditions are met during the resolution of a chain, a victory can be declared after that resolution.
Example: If you meet the Victory Condition of “Exodia the Forbidden One” by activating the effect of “Jar of Greed” that says “Draw 1 card” in a chain to the activation of the opponent’s “Mind Crush”, the effect of “Mind Crush” is not applied afterwards and you win the Duel.
[Pictured: Mind Crush, “Chain Link 1, “does not resolve”, Jar of Greed, “Chain Link 2” => “draw”, Exodia the Forbidden One, “win when assembled!”]

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[6] Progress of the game

Preparations for the game

•Before starting the Duel, both players shake hands and greet each other.

Shuffling and Cutting the Deck

•When a Duel begins, first both players shuffle their respective Decks. Then, they cut the opponent’s Deck. This is called “cutting”.
•After the opponent cuts the Deck, the owner cannot shuffle the Deck again.

Determining Who Goes First

•After shuffling and cutting the Deck, play rock-paper-scissors and the winner chooses whether to go first or second.
•If multiple Duels are conducted in a Match, the player who lost the previous Duel decides whether to go first or second. If the previous Duel resulted in a draw, decide who goes first by playing rock-paper-scissors.

Starting Hand and LP

•Both players have 8000 LP and draw 5 cards from the Deck when the Duel begins. Neither player can use cards before the turn of the player who goes first begins.

[Pictured: a hand of 5 cards, “start with 8000 LP”, “5 cards in the hand”]

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6.2 Priority to activate cards

•As the turn progresses, the turn player has the right to activate cards first in each particular timing of each phase or step, and this right is called the priority to activate cards.
•The player that has priority to activate cards can activate Quick Effects of monsters, Quick-Play Spell Cards, or Trap Cards, providing the timing is correct.
•If the requirements to activate or apply an optional Trigger Effect of a monster or the effect of a face-up Spell or Trap Card are met, they can be activated or applied even without having the priority to activate cards.
•If the requirements to activate a mandatorily activated effect are met, it activates even without having the priority to activate cards.
•If the priority to activate cards is passed to the opponent, the opponent can pass priority or activate cards/effects.
•If the turn player wishes to move to the next phase or step, they can move to that next phase or step after passing the priority to activate cards and the opponent also passes priority to activate cards.

[Pictured: Mystical Space Typhoon, “first, the turn player activates” => Jar of Greed, “the opponent activates”]

Priority to Continue the Turn

•The right to pass to the next phase of step of the turn always belongs to the turn player. This is different from having the priority to activate cards.
•If both players pass the priority to activate cards, the turn player can declare the beginning of a new phase or step and proceed with the turn.

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6.3 Flow of the Turn

•A turn is composed of 6 phases in total, the current player of the turn is the turn player, and the 6 phases are conducted in order. Also, the Battle Phase is divided in 4 further steps.
•In each phase or step, both players pass the priority to activate cards and finish resolving all the resolutions. As long as either player wants to keep activating or resolving effects, that phase or step does not end.
•When each phase or step begins, the turn players declares it.
•If an effect says “after [] turns” without specifying yours or the opponent’s, it counts the turns of each player as 1 turn.
•If a card says it counts “your turns”, it only counts your turns as 1 turn.

Draw Phase

•The turn player draws a card from the Main Deck at the beginning of the Draw Phase. This is called the normal draw.
•The player who goes first cannot perform their normal draw during the Draw Phase of their first turn.
•Neither player can activate cards before the turn player draws a card during the Draw Phase. As a result, no effects can be activated can be activated until a card is drawn, except for effects that have already been applied. As an exception, effects that say they resolve “instead of your normal draw”, or say they are activated or resolved “before drawing”, can be activated or resolved.

[Pictured: Diabolos, King of the Abyss, Rank-Up-Magic Astral Force]

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•After the turn player draws a card, if a player wants to activate a card, the turn player can activate cards first.
•If there are no cards in the Deck and the player must draw but is unable to, that player loses.
•If both players pass the priority to activate cards, the Draw Phase ends, and afterwards, the Standby Phase begins.

Standby Phase

•If a player wishes to activate cards, the turn player can activate cards first.
•If effects activate or apply in the Standby Phase, in most cases they resolve starting from the turn player. Furthermore, if a player wants to activate a card or effect that has no specific activation timing like “Mystical Space Typhoon”, they can also be activated or resolved in any order.
•If both players pass the priority to activate cards, the Standby Phase ends and Main Phase 1 begins.
•If a Trigger Effect that activates in the Standby Phase has its activation negated, it cannot be activated again afterwards.

[Pictured: Vivid Knight, Treeborn Frog]

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Main Phase 1

•When the Main Phase 1 begins, the turn player can activate cards or effects that say “at the start of Main Phase 1”. These cards or effects can only be activated as the first activation of the turn player in Main Phase 1.
•If the turn player has priority to activate cards and there are no other cards that would activate or resolve, they can perform the following actions during the Main Phase: Normal Summon a monster / Setting a monster / Special Summon a monster by its requirements / Flip Summon / change the battle position of a monster / activate a Spell or Trap Card / activate the Ignition Effect of a monster/ Set a Spell or Trap Card / activate a Pendulum Monster as a Spell Card.
•After both players pass the priority to activate cards and the Main Phase ends, the turn player can choose to conduct the Battle Phase or to conduct the End Phase.

Battle Phase

•After the Main Phase 1 ends, the turn player can choose to conduct the Battle Phase.
•A Battle Phase cannot be conducted during the first turn of the Duel.
•The Battle Phase is divided into 4 steps. If a Battle Phase is conducted, the Start Step begins.

Start Step

•The step in which it is declared that a Battle Phase will be conducted.
•Resolve the effects that activate or apply at the beginning of the Start Step. After all the cards finish resolving, if a player wishes to activate cards, the turn player can activate cards first.
•If both players pass the priority to activate cards, the Start Step finishes and the Battle Step begins.

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Battle Step

•The step in which you declare to perform an attack with 1 of your monsters.
•A single monster can only perform 1 attack declaration per turn, providing no particular effects are applied. If the attack was negated, the monster cannot perform another attack in the same turn, in most cases.
•An attack declaration is performed in the following sequence:
1) Choose 1 of your face-up Attack Position monsters to perform an attack => if the opponent controls monsters, choose a monster as an Attack Target. If the opponent does not control any monsters, declare a direct attack on the opponent.
2) After declaring an attack, the effects that activate/apply when an attack is declared or when a monster is targeted for an attack are activated and resolved starting from the turn player. After all cards are resolved, if a player wishes to activate an effect, the turn player can activate effects first.
•Cards that say they can be activated “when an attack is declared” can only be activated at the timing in which an attack is declared. Multiple effects that activate “when an attack is declaraed” can be activated providing they form a chain.
Example: If a “Dimensional Prison” activated when an opponent’s monster declared an attack would be negated by “Trap Jammer” or similar, if the chain that responds to the attack declaration and its effects finish resolving, cards that activate “when an attack is declared” like “Dimensional Prison” or “Mirror Force” cannot be activated afterwards.

[Pictured: Dimensional Prison, “chain Link 1”, <= "negated by" Trap Jammer, “Chain Link 2”, Mirror Force, “cannot be activated afterwards”]
•If no more attacks are performed by monsters, conduct the End Step.

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•After an attack is declared and both players pass the priority to activate cards, the Battle Step ends and the Damage Step begins. However, if after attack declaration the attack is negated, or the attacking monster is changed to Defense Position during the Battle Step, so that it is not possible to continue with the battle, the Damage Step does not begin and damage calculation is not performed.

Battle Replays

•After you perform an attack declaration with your monster, if a monster the opponent controls leaves the field or a new opponent’s monster is Special Summoned or something similar during the Battle Step, so that the number of monsters the opponent controls changes, a replay is triggered.
•Even if 1 monster leaves the field by the resolution of an effect and then 1 monster is Special Summoned, or something similar, so that the number of monsters does not increase or decrease, this is still treated as the number of monsters changing.
•If the number of monsters that the player who performed the attack declaration controls increases or decreases, a replay is not triggered.
•If a replay is triggered, an attack target is chosen to be attacked with that attacking monster.
•At the timing an attack target is chosen, is is possible to choose none and stop the attack. Even in that case, the monster is treated as performing an attack declaration and it cannot attack during the same Battle Phase.
•If a replay is triggered, when an attack target is chosen, this is not treated as “when an attack is declared”.
Example: After a monster you control performs an attack declaration, the opponent activated “Call of the Haunted” and Special Summoned a monster. You choose to attack the Special Summoned monster as a result of the replay, but at that time, the opponent cannot activate cards that activate “when an attack is declared” like “Mirror Force”.

[Pictured: Call of the Haunted, “Special Summons and a replay is triggered” => Mirror Force, “cannot activate afterwards”]

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•After a monster that can declare a direct attack by a card effect declares a direct attack, if that monster becomes unable to declare a direct attack during that Battle Step by the effect of another card, a replay is triggered.
•After performing an attack declaration on a monster, if it becomes impossible to attack that monster during the Battle Step, a replay is triggered.
Example: If an attack is performed on an opponent’s face-up monster while the effect of “Ghostrick Mansion” that says “Monsters cannot attack face-down Defense Position monsters, but can attack directly if all monsters their opponent controls are face-down Defense Position” is being applied, if “Book of Moon” is activated so that the opponent’s monster that was targeted for an attack is changed to face-down Defense Position, a replay is triggered, and if the opponent does not control any other face-up monsters, you can choose to perform a direct attack or stop the attack.
•If the number of monster changes during the resolution of an effect or chain, a replay is triggered after all those effects finish resolving.
Example: If, at the time you declare an attack, the opponent activates “Dimensional Prison” and activates “Call of the Haunted” in a chain, a monster is Special Summoned to the opponent’s side of the field by “Call of the Haunted”, but since the chain is still resolving, “Dimensional Prison” resolves before triggering a replay. As a result, your monster is banished by “Dimensional Prison” and a replay is not triggered.

[Pictured: Terratiger, the Empowered Warrior, “attacking monster”, “banished before a replay is triggered” <= Dimensional Prison, "Chain Link 1", Call of the Haunted, “Chain Link 2”, “Special Summons a monster”]

•If there are effects that activate when a monster is Normal or Special Summoned, a replay is triggered after those effects finish resolving.
•Replays can only be triggered during the Battle Step. If the number of monsters changes during the Damage Step, a replay is not triggered.

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Damage Step

•During the Damage Step, cards cannot be activated in most cases, even while a player has the priority to activate cards. However, cards that have the following types of effects can be activated as an exception: Counter Trap Cards / effects that negate the activation of cards or effects / cards that increase or decrease the ATK or DEF of monsters / effects that activate mandatorily / Monster Effects that activate when the monster is flipped face-up / Monster Effects that activate when the monster itself is Special Summoned successfully / effects that activate when the card itself is destroyed, banished, added to the hand, etc.
•Effects that increase or decrease the ATK or DEF of monsters can only be activated up to the timing of “before damage calculation”.
[Pictured: Stardust Dragon, Forbidden Chalice, Artifact Moralltach]
•If an attack progresses until the Damage Step, that attacking monster is treated as “having attacked”.
Example: An attack was declared with “Number 52: Diamond Crab King” on an opponent’s monster and the attack progressed until the Damage Step. Afterwards, even if the opponent’s monster disappears and damage calculation is not performed, the effect that says “If this card attacks, it is changed to Defense Position at the end of the Battle Phase” is applied at the end of the Battle Phase.

[Pictured: Number 52: Diamond Crab King, “if the attack reaches the Damage Step, it is treated as ‘having attacked'” => “changes to Defense Position”]

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•Monster Effects that have already been applied, or the effects of Continuous Spells or Traps or similar effects, keep being applied.
•Even if the number of monsters the opponent controls changes during the Damage Step, a replay is not triggered.
•Effects that list a particular timing like “at the start of the Damage Step” or “during damage calculation” cannot be activated after other cards that activate in that timing finish resolving.
Example: If “Dandylion” is sent to the Graveyard during damage calculation by an activated effect and its effect that says “If this card is sent to the Graveyard: Special Summon 2 “Fluff Tokens” (Plant-Type/WIND/Level 1/ATK 0/DEF 0) in Defense Position” is activated, the effect of Injection Fairy Lily that says “If this card attacks or is attacked, during damage calculation (in either player’s turn): You can pay 2000 LP once per battle; this card gains 3000 ATK during that damage calculation only” cannot be activated in a chain after that other effect resolved.
[Pictured: Dandylion <X= "cannot chain", Injection Fairy Lily]
•The progress of the Damage Step is divided in 5 parts.

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Start of the Damage Step

•This is the timing in which the Damage Step begins.
•Effects that activate or resolve “without applying damage calculation” can be activated or resolved by the turn player first. After all cards finish resolving, if a player wishes to activate a card, the turn player can activate a card first.
•If both players pass the priority to activate cards, proceed to “before damage calculation”.
•Examples of cards that can be activated at this timing are effects that say “without applying damage calculation” like “Ally of Justice Catastor” or “Sasuke Samurai #4”.

[Pictured: Ally of Justice Catastor, Sasuke Samurai #4]

Before Damage Calculation

•If a face-down monster battles, is is changed to face-up Defense Position at the “before damage calculation” timing. If the monster has an effect that activates when it is flipped face-up, it does not activate yet in this timing.
•After flipping the face-down monster face-up, if a player wants to activate cards, the turn player can activate cards first. If both players pass the priority to activate cards, proceed to damage calculation.
•Examples of cards that can be activated at this timing are Quick Effects of monsters, Traps or Quick-Play Spells that have effects that increase/decrease ATK or DEF like “Rush Recklessly”, “Shrink”, “Honest”, “Psychic Commander”, etc.

[Pictured: Rush Recklessly, Psychic Commander]

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Damage Calculation

•This is the timing in which damage calculation is performed, comparing the ATK and DEF values of the battling monsters, damage is taken, and LP is reduced.
•Effects that say they can be activated “during damage calculation” can be activated in a chain, and the turn player can activate effects first.
•Examples of cards that can be activated in this timing: “Kuriboh”, “Injection Fairy Lily”, “Defense Draw”, “Number 62: Galaxy-Eyes Prime Photon Dragon”, and other effects that say “during damage calculation”.

[Pictured: Injection Fairy Lily, Number 62: Galaxy-Eyes Prime Photon Dragon]
•While battling with an opponent’s monster, damage calculation is performed as one of the following scenarios:
-If the opponent’s monster is in Attack Position, compare the ATK of the attacking monster and the ATK of the attack target monster, and inflict damage equal to the difference to the opposite player. Also, the monster with the lower ATK is destroyed at the end of that Damage Step. If the ATK is the same, no damage is inflicted and both monsters are destroyed at the end of that Damage Step.
•If the opponent’s monster is in Defense Position, compare the ATK of the attacking monster and the DEF of the attack target monster, and if the ATK is higher, the monster with the lower DEF is destroyed at the end of that Damage Step. If the DEF is higher, the player who attacked takes damage equal to the difference. If the ATK and DEF are equal, no damage is inflicted and neither monster is destroyed.
•If a direct attack is performed, inflict battle damage to the opponent’s LP equal to the ATK of the attacking monster.
•Monsters determined to be destroyed by battle are sent to the Graveyard at the end of the Damage Step, but the result of the battle is determined when the ATK and DEF are compared during damage calculation.

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•If damage calculation is not performed, the monsters are not treated as “having battled”.
Example: If “Gladiator Beast Equeste” attacks an opponent’s monster and that monster leaves the field by the effect of another card at the start of the Damage Step, the effect of “Gladiator Beast Equeste” that says “At the end of the Battle Phase, if this card attacked or was attacked: You can shuffle it into the Deck” cannot be activated.
[TL Note: The PSCT for Gladiator Beasts does not use “battle” but rather “attacks or was attacked”]
[Pictured: Gladiator Beast Equeste]
•If a monster determined to be destroyed in that battle has a Continuous Effect, the effect stops applying at that time. Also, a monster that has been determined to be destroyed cannot be targeted for effects until it is sent to the Graveyard at the end of the Damage Step.
•If an effect that says “if it would be destroyed, you can […] instead” is applied, the monster is not treated as being destroyed.

If 0 ATK Monsters Battle

•If two Attack Position monsters with 0 ATK battle each other, no damage is inflicted to either player and neither monster is destroyed.

Battle Damage

•Damage inflicted to the LP as a result of monsters battling is called battle damage.
•The damage taken by a player from a Defense Position monster is also battle damage.
•The damage from effects that say “inflict battle damage” is not treated as effect damage, and it is treated as battle damage.

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After Damage Calculation

•This is the timing in which effects that activate or resolve based on the results of damage calculation are resolved.
•Effects that activate “after damage calculation”, “when it inflicts battle damage to the opponent” or “when/if it is flipped face-up” can be activated forming a chain according to priority.
•Examples of cards that can be activated in this timing are “Spirit Reaper”, “Red Dragon Archfiend”, “Gorz the Emissary of Darkness”, “D.D. Warrior Lady”, and effects that activate when/if the monster is flipped face-up.

[Pictured: Spirit Reaper, Red Dragon Archfiend]

End of the Damage Step

•This is the timing in which the battle ends and the monsters destroyed in battle are sent to the Graveyard.
•Effects that activate “when it is destroyed by battle and sent to the Graveyard” or “when it destroys an opponent’s monster by battle” can be activated forming a chain according to priority.

[Pictured: Mystic Tomato, Jurrac Guaiba]

•Effects that are applied “until the end of the Damage Step” are applied until the Damage Step ends and all cards that are activated or resolved finish resolving.
•After the Damage Step ends, the Battle Step begins. Afterwards, if no attacks are performed, move to the End Step.

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End Step

•This step is the end of the Battle Phase.
•If an effect is applied “at the end of the Battle Phase”, the End Step begins.
•If players want to activate a card, the turn player can activate cards first.
•If effects are activated or applied in the End Step, in most cases they are resolved by the turn player first. Furthermore, if a player wants to activate a card or effect that has no specific activation timing like “Mystical Space Typhoon”, they can also be activated or resolved in any order.

[Pictured: Gladiator Beast Darius, Ancient Forest]
•Effects that are applied “until the end of the Battle Phase” or “during the Battle Phase” are applied until both players pass the priority to activate cards during the End Step and after all cards finish resolving.
•If both players pass the priority to activate cards, the End Step ends, and then Main Phase 2 begins.

Main Phase 2

•Main Phase 2 can only be conducted after the Battle Phase ends.
•The same actions that can be conducted in Main Phase 1 can be conducted in Main Phase 2.
•If an action that can only be conducted once per turn like Normal Summoning/Setting or Pendulum Summoning has been performed during Main Phase 1, it cannot be performed during Main Phase 2.
•If both players pass the priority to activate cards, the Main Phase 2 ends and the End Phase begins.

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•If players wish to activate cards when the End Phase begins, the turn player can activate cards first.
•In most cases, effects that activate or apply during the End Phase can be resolved first by the turn player. Furthermore, if a player wants to activate a card or effect that has no specific activation timing like “Mystical Space Typhoon”, they can also be activated or resolved in any order.
•If both players pass the priority to activate cards, the turn player must activate and resolve effects that activate mandatorily or that must be resolved during the End Phase first.
Example: You took control of an opponent’s “Metalzoa” that was Special Summoned during their turn by “A Wild Monster Appears!” by activating “Creature Swap”, and then you activated “Limiter Removal” to double its ATK. During the End Phase of that turn, first, the turn player can choose to apply the effect of “Limiter Removal” that says “During the End Phase, destroy those monsters“. If it is applied, “Metalzoa” is destroyed and the effect of “A Wild Monster Appears!” that says “also shuffle it into the Deck during your opponent’s next End Phase” is not applied. Otherwise, if the turn player does not apply the effect of “Limiter Removal”, the opponent can choose to apply the effect of “A Wild Monster Appears!”. If it is applied, “Metalzoa” is returned to the owner’s Deck, but if it is not applied, the effect of “Limiter Removal” is applied mandatorily and “Metalzoa” is destroyed as a result.

[Pictured: A Wild Monster Appears!, Metalzoa, Limiter Removal]

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•Once both players pass the priority to activate cards and all cards have finished resolving, if the turn player has 7 or more cards in their hand, they choose and discard cards from their hand until they have 6 cards in their hand. Cards discarded at this time are treated as being “discarded from the hand” and “sent from the hand to the Garveyard”. However, they are not treated as being “discarded by an effect” or “sent to the Graveyard by an effect”.
Example: If the turn player has 7 cards in their hand during the End Phase and they discard “Grapha, Dragon Lord of Dark World” to reduce the hand size to 6 cards, the effect that says “If this card is discarded to the Graveyard by a card effect” does not activate. Also, if “Lightserpent” is discarded, its effect that says “If this card is sent from the hand to your Graveyard” activates.

[Pictured: Grapha, Dragon Lord of Dark World, “does not activate”, Lightserpent, “activates”]

•Effects that say “until the end of the turn” are applied until both players have passed the priority to activate cards, have finished adjusting the hand size, and finished all the resolutions during the End Phase.
•After the End Phase is over, the Draw Phase of the opponent’s turn begins.

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